Category: uk

Mapping Shipping Lanes: Maritime Traffic Around the World


This post is by Carmen Ang from Visual Capitalist


this map visualizes maritime traffic around the world and highlights the world's shipping lanes.

Click to view a larger version of the map.

Mapping Shipping Lanes: Maritime Traffic Around the World

Each year, thousands of ships travel across the globe, transporting everything from passengers to consumer goods like wheat and oil.

But just how busy are global maritime routes, and where are the world’s major shipping lanes? This map by Adam Syminton paints a macro picture of the world’s maritime traffic by highlighting marine traffic density around the world.

It uses data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in partnership with The World Bank, as part of IMF’s World Seaborne Trade Monitoring System.

Data spans from Jan 2015 to Feb 2021 and includes five different types of ships: commercial ships, fishing ships, oil & gas, passenger ships, and leisure vessels.

An Overview of Key Maritime Shipping Lanes

If you take a look at the map, you’ll spot some distinct areas where traffic is heavily concentrated.

These high-density areas are the world’s main shipping lanes. Syminton provided some zoomed-in visuals of these waterways in detail, so let’s dive in:

Panama Canal

Map of marine traffic density along the Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is a man-made waterway that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. For ships traveling from the east to west coast of the U.S., this route avoids the far more treacherous Cape Horn at the tip of South America or the Bering Strait in the Arctic, and shaves off roughly 8,000 nautical miles—or 21 days off their journey.

In 2021, approximately 516.7 million tons of goods passed through the major (Read more...)

The Surge in Climate Risk Reporting



The following content is sponsored by the Carbon Streaming Corporation

 

Climate Risk Reporting

The Briefing

  • The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) provides a global framework for organizations to disclose climate-related risks and opportunities.
  • Since 2018, the number of TCFD supporters has grown five-fold.
  • Over 1,000 financial institutions support the TCFD, representing $194 trillion in assets.

The Surge in Climate Risk Reporting

An average of $2.5 trillion—or 1.8% of global financial assets—would be at risk from climate change if global temperatures rise over 2.5℃ by 2100.

Given that climate change imposes a risk to the world’s assets, reporting on climate-related risks and opportunities is becoming front and center for organizations amid growing pressure from investors and governments.

The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), created by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in 2015, provides a global framework for such disclosures. This graphic sponsored by Carbon Streaming Corporation charts the rapid growth in support for climate risk reporting under the TCFD framework.

The Support for Climate-related Disclosures

The number of organizations supporting TCFD has grown five-fold in just three years, at an average annual rate of 73%.

YearNumber of TCFD SupportersCombined Market Capitalization
2018513$8T
2019785$9T
20201,512$13T
20212,616$25T

As of 2021, over 2,600 organizations supported the TCFD framework, with a combined market capitalization of $25 trillion. These organizations span 89 different countries and jurisdictions, highlighting the global support for climate risk reporting.

Additionally, 1,069 or nearly 41% of (Read more...)

Which Countries Have the Most Nuclear Weapons?


This post is by Omri Wallach from Visual Capitalist


Visualizing Countries with the Most Nuclear Weapons

Which Countries Have the Most Nuclear Weapons?

In theory, nuclear weapon stockpiles are closely held national secrets. The leading countries have rough estimates that aren’t regularly updated, newly nuclear countries keep their capabilities vague and unclear, and Israel has never officially confirmed a nuclear weapons program.

But thanks to limited disclosures, records, and leaks, we can visualize the full extent of the world’s nuclear arsenal. This graphic uses estimated nuclear warhead inventories from the Federation of American Scientists as of August 2021.

Based on these estimates, there are just nine countries with nuclear weapons in the world.

Nuclear Weapons, by Country

The nuclear arms race has always centered around the U.S. and Russia.

After the end of World War II and well into the Cold War, the world’s two superpowers raced to build more nuclear weapons (and more capable nuclear weapons) than the other.

Even while international organizations lobbied for the end of nuclear proliferation, the world’s nuclear weapon stockpile grew to a peak of 70,300 total warheads in 1986.

As arms agreements and non-proliferation treaties started to gain greater momentum, the U.S. and Russia cut back on stockpiles while new countries with nuclear weapons started to pop up.

CountryTotal Warheads (2021)% of Total
?? Russia6,25747.7%
?? U.S.5,55042.3%
?? China3502.67%
?? France2902.21%
?? UK2251.71%
?? Pakistan1651.26%
?? India1601.22%
?? Israel900.69%
?? North Korea450.34%

Despite reducing their stockpiles significantly since the end of the Cold War, Russia and the (Read more...)

Comparing the Size of The World’s Rockets, Past and Present


This post is by Omri Wallach from Visual Capitalist


View the full-size version of this infographic

Comparing the Size of The World’s Rockets 1200px

The Size of The World’s Rockets, Past and Present

The SpaceX Starship might be the next rocket to take humans to the moon, but it won’t be the first, and likely not the last.

Starting in the mid-20th century, humanity has explored space faster than ever before. We’ve launched satellites, telescopes, space stations, and spacecrafts, all strapped to rocket-propelled launch vehicles that helped them breach our atmosphere.

This infographic from designer Tyler Skarbek stacks up the many different rockets of the world side-by-side, showing which country designed them, what years they were used, and what they (could) accomplish.

How Do The World’s Rockets Stack Up?

Before they were used for space travel, rockets were produced and developed to be used as ballistic missiles.

The first rocket to officially reach space—defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale as crossing the Kármán line at 100 kilometers (62 miles) above Earth’s mean sea level—was the German-produced V-2 rocket in 1944.

But after World War II, V-2 production fell into the hands of the U.S., the Soviet Union (USSR), and the UK.

Over the next few decades and the unfolding of the Cold War, what started as a nuclear arms race of superior ballistic missiles turned into the Space Race. Both the U.S. and the USSR tried to be the first to achieve and master spaceflight, driving production of many new and different rockets.

Origin CountryRocketYears ActivePayload (Range)Success/Failure
GermanyV-2 (Read more...)

Why Draper Esprit doubled down on its status as a publicly listed VC



We cover a lot of venture capital news here at TechCrunch. New funds, partner changes, the funding rounds themselves — the list is long. Lately, we’ve had to touch on rolling funds, solo GPs and a faster-than-ever investing cadence that has rewritten the rules of venture investing. Gone are the days when investors can take weeks, let alone months, to get into a hot deal in today’s turbocharged private markets.

But there’s another venture capital trend worth discussing: venture capital firms going public. This July, for example, London-based Forward Partners went public on the AIM, a sub-market of the well-known London Stock Exchange. Augmentum Fintech is another example of a London-listed venture capital firm. The investing group focuses on European fintech.

Most recently, Draper Esprit, another British venture capital firm, moved from the AIM to the LSE proper, with a secondary listing on Euronext Dublin. TechCrunch has cited Esprit partners in our explorations of the European venture capital scene in the past, especially in our regular digs through the startup hub’s numbers.

To understand why Draper Esprit not only decided to stay public but doubled down on its structure by moving to the main boards in London and Dublin, we got on the horn with the firm’s co-founder, Stuart Chapman. What follows is an edited and condensed transcript of our call. Coming up, The Exchange has analysis and further interviews about whether the trend of floating venture capital firms may spread, and why other investing groups opted (Read more...)

Mapped: The World’s Biggest Private Tax Havens


This post is by Omri Wallach from Visual Capitalist


Biggest Tax Havens

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Yes. Visualizations are free to share and post in their original form across the web—even for publishers. Please link back to this page and attribute Visual Capitalist.
When do I need a license?
Licenses are required for some commercial uses, translations, or layout modifications. You can even whitelabel our visualizations. Explore your options.
Interested in this piece?
Click here to license this visualization.

The World’s Biggest Private Tax Havens

When the world’s ultra-wealthy look for tax havens to shield income and wealth from their domestic governments, where do they turn?

If you’re putting money in offshore bank accounts in order to save on taxes, there are two main criteria you’re looking for: secrecy and accessibility. Based on pop culture and media reports, you might imagine a secretive bank in Switzerland or a tiny island nation in the Caribbean.

And though there is some truth to that logic, the reality is that the world’s biggest tax havens are spread all over the world. Some of them are small nations as expected, but others are major economic powers that might be surprising.

Here are the world’s top 20 tax havens, as ranked by the 2020 Financial Secrecy Index (FSI) by the English NGO Tax Justice Network.

Which Countries are the Biggest Tax Havens?

The FSI ranks countries and territories from all over the world on two criteria: secrecy and scale.

  • Secrecy Score: How well the jurisdiction’s banking system can hide money. (Read more...)

Mapped: The World’s Top Countries for Military Spending


This post is by Aran Ali from Visual Capitalist


Mapped The World's Top Military Spenders in 2020

Mapped: The World’s Top Countries for Military Spending

By practically any measure, the world today is more peaceful and less war-torn on a global scale, relative to the past.

For instance, declarations of war between nations and soldier casualties have both dropped drastically since the 20th century. Yet, military spending has not followed this trend.

The Top 10 Military Spenders

According to SIPRI, global military spend reached almost $2 trillion in 2020. The top 10 countries represent roughly 75% of this figure, and have increased their spending by $51 billion since the year prior.

Here’s how the worlds top 10 military spenders compare to each other:

RankCountryMilitary Spend 2020 ($B)% ChangeMilitary Spend 2019 ($B)
#1?? United States$778.0+6.2%$732.0
#2?? China$252.0-3.4%$261.0
#3?? India$72.9+2.5%$71.1
#4?? Russia$61.7-5.2%$65.1
#5?? United Kingdom$59.2+21.5%$48.7
#6?? Saudi Arabia$57.5-7.1%$61.9
#7?? Germany$52.8+7.1%$61.9
#8?? France$52.7+5.1%$50.1
#9?? Japan$49.1+3.1%$47.6
#10?? South Korea$45.7+4.1%$43.9
Total$1,481.6+3.5%$1,430.7

The U.S. isn’t labeled as a global superpower for nothing. The country is by far the largest military spender, and its $778 billion budget trumps the remainder of the list’s collective $703.6 billion. On its own, the U.S. represents just under 40% of global military spending.

This year, Saudi Arabia has lost out on a top five seat to the UK, after a 7.1% decline in spending compared to a 21.5% increase for (Read more...)

Mapped: The World’s Top Countries for Military Spending


This post is by Aran Ali from Visual Capitalist


Mapped The World's Top Military Spenders in 2020

Mapped: The World’s Top Countries for Military Spending

By practically any measure, the world today is more peaceful and less war-torn on a global scale, relative to the past.

For instance, declarations of war between nations and soldier casualties have both dropped drastically since the 20th century. Yet, military spending has not followed this trend.

The Top 10 Military Spenders

According to SIPRI, global military spend reached almost $2 trillion in 2020. The top 10 countries represent roughly 75% of this figure, and have increased their spending by $51 billion since the year prior.

Here’s how the worlds top 10 military spenders compare to each other:

RankCountryMilitary Spend 2020 ($B)% ChangeMilitary Spend 2019 ($B)
#1?? United States$778.0+6.2%$732.0
#2?? China$252.0-3.4%$261.0
#3?? India$72.9+2.5%$71.1
#4?? Russia$61.7-5.2%$65.1
#5?? United Kingdom$59.2+21.5%$48.7
#6?? Saudi Arabia$57.5-7.1%$61.9
#7?? Germany$52.8+7.1%$61.9
#8?? France$52.7+5.1%$50.1
#9?? Japan$49.1+3.1%$47.6
#10?? South Korea$45.7+4.1%$43.9
Total$1,481.6+3.5%$1,430.7

The U.S. isn’t labeled as a global superpower for nothing. The country is by far the largest military spender, and its $778 billion budget trumps the remainder of the list’s collective $703.6 billion. On its own, the U.S. represents just under 40% of global military spending.

This year, Saudi Arabia has lost out on a top five seat to the UK, after a 7.1% decline in spending compared to a 21.5% increase for (Read more...)

Explained: The 3 Major COVID-19 Variants


This post is by Carmen Ang from Visual Capitalist


3 Major COVID variants

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Yes. Visualizations are free to share and post in their original form across the web—even for publishers. Please link back to this page and attribute Visual Capitalist.
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Licenses are required for some commercial uses, translations, or layout modifications. You can even whitelabel our visualizations. Explore your options.
Interested in this piece?
Click here to license this visualization.

Explained: The 3 Major COVID-19 Variants

As billions of people gear up for widespread vaccination against COVID-19, another issue has reared its head. Three major COVID-19 variants have emerged across the globe—and preliminary research suggests these variants may be cause for concern.

But what makes them different from the original strain?

The following visualizations answer some key questions, including when these variants were first discovered, how far they’ve spread worldwide, and most importantly, their potential impact on the population.

Some Context: What is a Variant?

Before diving in, it’s important to understand why viruses mutate in the first place.

To infect someone, a virus takes over a host cell and uses it to replicate itself. But nature isn’t perfect, and sometimes, mistakes are made during the replication process—those mistakes are called mutations.

A virus with one or more mutations is referred to as a variant. Most of the time, variants do not affect a virus’s physical structure, and in those instances, they eventually disappear. However, there are certain cases when a mutation impacts part of (Read more...)

Visualizing the UK and EU Trade Relationship


This post is by Avery Koop from Visual Capitalist


uk trade with eu

Can I share this graphic?
Yes. Visualizations are free to share and post in their original form across the web—even for publishers. Please link back to this page and attribute Visual Capitalist.
When do I need a license?
Licenses are required for some commercial uses, translations, or layout modifications. You can even whitelabel our visualizations. Explore your options.
Interested in this piece?
Click here to license this visualization.

Visualizing the UK and EU Trade Relationship

With Brexit solidified and a new trade deal having been struck between the UK and the EU, it appears that a sense of normalcy has returned to the European continent.

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the two entities came into effect on January 1st, 2021, corresponding with the UK officially leaving the EU Single Market and Customs Union on the same day. The new deal will help the status quo of trade continue, but how important is trade between the EU and the UK?

This visualization, using data from the British House of Commons’ Statistics on UK-EU Trade Briefing Paper, reveals the significance of trade between the UK and EU member states.

Who Does the UK Trade With in the EU?

The EU is the UK’s biggest global trading partner, representing 47% of the country’s total trade.

To break it down further, the EU is the buyer of 42.6% of the UK’s total exports, while also being the source of 51.8% of their total imports. Here’s a (Read more...)