How to make zoom video meetings spectacularly successful


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

From Tomasz Tunguz’ The Secret to Productive Group Meetings over Video (with edits):

Say you want to brainstorm ideas for a new product you’re going to launch. Schedule a video meeting for the relevant people from sales, product, marketing, engineering, and customer support.

Create a Google document with ten pages, a page with each person’s name on top. Ask everyone in the meeting to find the page with their name on it and answer the question: “what are the top three features our new product needs?” in the first ten minutes.

Time’s up; hands-off keyboards. Coalesce the lists in front of everyone. By the time you’ve completed your work, the team has read the others’ contributions and is ready to discuss. The group steps through the bullet items in the remaining time.

I’ve participated in sessions like this for brainstorming, 360° reviews, project planning, pipeline evaluation, team standups, all kinds. Each session is remarkably more productive with video and Google Docs than in person.

Notes:
(1) I love this advice. But the final step (“the group steps through the bullet items in the remaining time”) seems vague.
(2) One possibility: After the brainstorming, get the participants to name their top candidate from the combined list and explain why. I’ve found that asking participants to vote or to provide a rating (How much do you like this, one to ten?”) helps get meetings to an actionable conclusion. See: How to end meetings.
(3) On deriving value from a meetings as fast as possible, see The antidote to bad meetings.

The most important thing to remember as a founder / CEO


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

From Redpoint’s profile of VC Tomasz Tunguz:

Best learning as a founder?
Things are never as good or bad as they seem. Throughout the rollercoaster ride, your have to keep your head, even if all those around you are losing theirs.

Notes:
(1) Peter Fenton thinks the most important quality of a successful founder is “profound, deep, innate motivation”. Perhaps that is related to Tom Tunguz’ point. To succeed, your motivation must be independent of short term success or failure.
(2) Wondering about the relationship between Tom’s “Things are never as good or bad as they seem” and the ancient adage “This too shall pass”?

To reduce churn by more than 2 percentage points, you have to raise product value and usage


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

From Churn is the single metric that determines the success of your subscription service by David Packman:

“There is a laundry list of optimizations subscription services implement to improve retention, and collectively these have a positive effect—re-billing insufficient fund accounts on the 15th and 30th of the month, allowing members to pause their service, allowing members to reduce the frequency of delivered goods, winback campaigns to churned members, etc.

But a key observation about businesses which show high churn in their early stages is that the churn will not meaningfully reduce. That is, you can expect your optimization efforts to maybe move churn 1% — 2% (absolute points) or so, but they will never halve churn or reduce it dramatically beyond this. This is because churn is a statement from your customers about how habitually valuable your service is to them. In my experience, the only way to meaningfully reduce churn in high-churn businesses is to essentially redesign the service and the value proposition.

For clarity, I have looked at close to a hundred subscription services and have never seen churn improve from, say, 12% a month to 7% a month without fundamentally changing the service…but I have seen it move from 12% to 10% or thereabouts through optimization.”

Notes:
(1) Re. “Churn is a statement from your customers about how habitually valuable your service is to them” — see The relationship between frequency of habit and customer retention.
(2) The optimizations which David Packman argues have limited ability to reduce churn do not address insufficient product usage. For an alternative approach, see How to reduce churn by identifying your “red flag metrics”.
(3) We’ve raised retention for Seeking Alpha Premium by (i) identifying our most valuable product features, and (2) redesigning the product UX to increase the usage of those features. For example, our ranking of the top stocks in each industry is valuable because it enables investors to discover stocks which subsequently outperform the market, so we’ve redesigned our product to increase usage of those rankings.

What happens when you talk about too many goals


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

From How Jeremy Corbyn Lost The Election – And Started The Race To Replace Him:

One big problem was the sheer size of the manifesto and the number of policies on offer. Candidates complained that they didn’t have a single five-point pledge card like the one Tony Blair made famous. While the Tories had a simple message of ‘Get Brexit Done’, Labour lacked a similarly easy ‘doorstep offer’. “We had so much in the manifesto we almost had too much,” one senior source said. “It felt like none of it was cutting through. You needed to boil it down.”

Notes:
(1) This is a fundamental point about successful communication, and therefore applies to managers as well.
(2) See What’s your “simple scoreboard”?

The key to success? Do less.


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from How to Succeed in Business? Do Less by Morten T. Hansen:

Most top performers in business have one thing in common: They accept fewer tasks and then obsess over getting them right.

The common practice we found among the highest-ranked performers in our study wasn’t at all what we expected. It wasn’t a better ability to organize or delegate. Instead, top performers mastered selectivity. Whenever they could, they carefully selected which priorities, tasks, meetings, customers, ideas or steps to undertake and which to let go. They then applied intense, targeted effort on those few priorities in order to excel. We found that just a few key work practices related to such selectivity accounted for two-thirds of the variation in performance among our subjects. Talent, effort and luck undoubtedly mattered as well, but not nearly as much.

The research makes clear that we should change our individual work habits if we wish to perform better, but the implications are much more far-reaching. We also need to change how we manage and reward work, how we measure economic productivity and perhaps most important, how our culture recognizes hard work. We should no longer take it as an automatic compliment to hear that we’re “hard working.” Hard work isn’t always the best work. The key is to work smarter.

Notes:
(1) This doesn’t mean that companies should adopt fewer goals. Companies may achieve more by having teams or individuals working on different goals. But individuals must focus.
(2) My golden management rule: in every interaction with people in your company, ensure you Focus, Empower, and Inspire. This excerpt provides one of the ways to help people become more focused — help them to accept fewer tasks.
(3) Cf. (i) The best work question to ask yourself every morning, (ii) If you want to get more done, stop doing these things, (iii) Saying “no” to good ideas.

The key to success? Do less.


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from How to Succeed in Business? Do Less by Morten T. Hansen:

Most top performers in business have one thing in common: They accept fewer tasks and then obsess over getting them right.

The common practice we found among the highest-ranked performers in our study wasn’t at all what we expected. It wasn’t a better ability to organize or delegate. Instead, top performers mastered selectivity. Whenever they could, they carefully selected which priorities, tasks, meetings, customers, ideas or steps to undertake and which to let go. They then applied intense, targeted effort on those few priorities in order to excel. We found that just a few key work practices related to such selectivity accounted for two-thirds of the variation in performance among our subjects. Talent, effort and luck undoubtedly mattered as well, but not nearly as much.

The research makes clear that we should change our individual work habits if we wish to perform better, but the implications are much more far-reaching. We also need to change how we manage and reward work, how we measure economic productivity and perhaps most important, how our culture recognizes hard work. We should no longer take it as an automatic compliment to hear that we’re “hard working.” Hard work isn’t always the best work. The key is to work smarter.

Notes:
(1) This doesn’t mean that companies should adopt fewer goals. Companies may achieve more by having teams or individuals working on different goals. But individuals must focus.
(2) My Continue reading “The key to success? Do less.”

How to manage legal, finance, IT, and HR to enable you to move fast


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Edited excerpt from Lean Startup’s Eric Ries on How to Make ‘Gatekeepers’ a Source of Power and Speed:

Eric Ries calls functions like Legal, Finance, IT, and HR “gatekeepers”: Gatekeepers are the functional teams whose beneficiary is predominately the company itself, versus the end customer. They often impact the ability of the makers and sellers of the product — Product, Design, Engineering, Marketing and Sales — to reach customers.

The top tip for non-gatekeepers: Avoid the eleventh-hour ask. What they experience is someone calling them with no lead time, pitching a complex plan and asking for a thumbs up or down by end-of-day. From the gatekeeper’s point of view, that’s a lose-lose proposition. Either she has to say yes to something that has more liability than she’s comfortable with, or she has to say no and be the evil one. Instead, employ a cross-functional team from the start.

The top tip for gatekeepers: Revere how others build, be flexible in how you build. The best-performing gatekeepers have entrepreneurial virtues. They’ve got a tolerance — even comfort with — uncertainty and ambiguity and understand why entrepreneurship is challenging. This translates to empathy for what the product teams are going through. That flexibility brings a learning-first mentality. You want a gatekeeper who’s informed, but not always coming in with all the answers. She should be able to synthesize her expertise with what the company is doing.

The top tip for CEOs/founders: Foster an environment where gatekeepers can serve, not just respond. The statement you must be able to make is: The gatekeeping functions serve their customers rather than just respond to them. Keep gatekeeper functional heads accountable according to the cycle time of teams. Create metrics pertaining to how fast you want the team to turn things around.

Notes:
(1) Thank you Andrew Fine, an outstanding “gatekeeper”, for the tip.
(2) Cf. In your startup, the goals and culture must become a mantra.

How to manage legal, finance, IT, and HR to enable you to move fast


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Edited excerpt from Lean Startup’s Eric Ries on How to Make ‘Gatekeepers’ a Source of Power and Speed:

Eric Ries calls functions like Legal, Finance, IT, and HR “gatekeepers”: Gatekeepers are the functional teams whose beneficiary is predominately the company itself, versus the end customer. They often impact the ability of the makers and sellers of the product — Product, Design, Engineering, Marketing and Sales — to reach customers.

The top tip for non-gatekeepers: Avoid the eleventh-hour ask. What they experience is someone calling them with no lead time, pitching a complex plan and asking for a thumbs up or down by end-of-day. From the gatekeeper’s point of view, that’s a lose-lose proposition. Either she has to say yes to something that has more liability than she’s comfortable with, or she has to say no and be the evil one. Instead, employ a cross-functional team from the start.

The top tip for gatekeepers: Revere how others build, be flexible in how you build. The best-performing gatekeepers have entrepreneurial virtues. They’ve got a tolerance — even comfort with — uncertainty and ambiguity and understand why entrepreneurship is challenging. This translates to empathy for what the product teams are going through. That flexibility brings a learning-first mentality. You want a gatekeeper who’s informed, but not always coming in with all the answers. She should be able to synthesize her expertise with what the company is doing.

The top tip for CEOs/founders: Foster an environment where gatekeepers can serve, not just respond. The Continue reading “How to manage legal, finance, IT, and HR to enable you to move fast”

Five key takeaways from Peter Drucker’s “How To Be An Effective Executive”


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

In his book How To Be An Effective Executive, Peter Drucker identifies five key habits of effective executives:

1. Manage time. Use a three-step process: (i) Track your time use, and eliminate time wasters. (ii) Delegate by identifying tasks which can be done equally well by someone else. (iii) Don’t waste the time of those who work for you or with you. Ask: “What do I do which wastes your time?”.

2. Focus on contribution. Ask yourself what you can contribute that will significantly affect the performance of your company. If you don’t ask this, you’ll aim too low or at the wrong things. Look to contribute in three areas: (i) Direct results. (ii) Building and re-affirming values. (iii) Building and developing people for tomorrow.

3. Build on strengths. To “staff for strength”: (i) Make sure all jobs are designed well. Identify any job that has defeated two or three people in succession and get rid of it. (ii) Make each job demanding and big, as a challenge brings out strengths. (iii) Start with what a person can do, rather than what a job requires. Ask what a person has done well, and therefore what they are likely to do well in future. That includes yourself. (iv) Tolerate weaknesses.

4. Concentrate time, effort and resources. Do first things first, and only one thing at a time. Embrace the opposite of multi-tasking. Allow a fair margin of time over what you think you’ll need, and don’t race. Say “no” due to courage, not analysis, by picking the future over the past, focusing on opportunities not problems, choosing your own direction rather than the norm, and aiming high.

5. Make effective decisions. Decisions are made well when based on the clash of conflicting views. Encourage opinions rather than seeking out facts, as those who give you opinions should provide the facts. Know what you need to know to test the validity of a hypothesis. Organize disagreement, for example by identifying why people disagree.

Notes:
(1) Here’s an excellent video review of the book which presents these points. And here’s another written summary.
(2) On time management, see: Do the most important stuff first thing in the morning.
(3) On “build on strengths”, see: The two factors which determine how successful and happy you will be at work.

Five key takeaways from Peter Drucker’s “How To Be An Effective Executive”


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

In his book How To Be An Effective Executive, Peter Drucker identifies five key habits of effective executives:

1. Manage time. Use a three-step process: (i) Track your time use, and eliminate time wasters. (ii) Delegate by identifying tasks which can be done equally well by someone else. (iii) Don’t waste the time of those who work for you or with you. Ask: “What do I do which wastes your time?”.

2. Focus on contribution. Ask yourself what you can contribute that will significantly affect the performance of your company. If you don’t ask this, you’ll aim too low or at the wrong things. Look to contribute in three areas: (i) Direct results. (ii) Building and re-affirming values. (iii) Building and developing people for tomorrow.

3. Build on strengths. To “staff for strength”: (i) Make sure all jobs are designed well. Identify any job that has defeated two or three people in succession and get rid of it. (ii) Make each job demanding and big, as a challenge brings out strengths. (iii) Start with what a person can do, rather than what a job requires. Ask what a person has done well, and therefore what they are likely to do well in future. That includes yourself. (iv) Tolerate weaknesses.

4. Concentrate time, effort and resources. Do first things first, and only one thing at a time. Embrace the opposite of multi-tasking. Allow a fair margin of time over what you think you’ll need, and don’t race. Say “no” Continue reading “Five key takeaways from Peter Drucker’s “How To Be An Effective Executive””

Why revenue retention is the wrong operating metric to combat churn


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Edited excerpt from Why Retention Is The Silent Killer by Brian Balfour:

When I ask someone from a SaaS business, or another subscription model business, about their retention, I almost always get an answer involving monthly or yearly revenue retention. This is a red flag for me. I’m far more interested in how retention is reflected in the breadth and depth of product usage.

Why, you ask? Revenue retention is the output of engaged users. The usage is the input, and looking only at revenue retention as a proxy for usage retention has two big problems:

1. Revenue can hide what is going on under the hood with product usage, and shield you from signals about your product’s health over the longer term. You may earn a month or a year’s worth of revenue from a paying subscriber, but if that person isn’t using the product, they will churn when that month or year is up.

2. If you are trying to improve retention but only tracking revenue retention, the game is over before you’ve even had the chance to play. Once a paying subscriber has churned, winning them back is almost impossible. If you want to improve retention you need to look at usage retention first.

Notes:
(1) Contrast Brian’s emphasis on product usage with David Skok’s approach in How to reduce churn.
(2) Cf. The relationship between frequency of habit and customer retention.
(3) Cf. How to reduce churn by identifying your “red flag metrics”.
Continue reading “Why revenue retention is the wrong operating metric to combat churn”

Mobile vs. desktop usage habits


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Edited excerpt from How Meredith built Allrecipes into a digital-to-print, multichannel success by Cobus Heyl:

When designing each experience, we look to the unique strength of each medium.

Web provides a high degree of interactivity and utility: A keyboard and mouse allow the consumer to actively share their experiences through text. The large screen allows them to engage and to interact with the content through drag and drop functionality, and allows many items to be present on the page at the same time.

Mobile is all about mobility and constant connectivity: We take advantage of the likelihood that the home cook is most likely on-the-go or in-store when using their phone, so we are very much focused on helping them quickly find and share dinner solutions. The phone’s geolocation technology pinpoints the cook’s location so we can deliver hyper-local grocery offers that match their location and preferred retail outlet. We also take advantage of touch, voice and motion to allow them to enhance the brand experience. Mobile devices are also more likely to be a personal vs. shared device, so we can pay attention to their past behaviours to deliver a more personalized experience uniquely tailored to their interests and needs.

Print is an experience where cooks are most likely interested in having us curate the experience for them: The team pays close attention to the trends and behaviours we are seeing play out on the web to inform the editorial framework and focus of each issue. They are Continue reading “Mobile vs. desktop usage habits”

Improving retention helps growth in 4 ways


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from The One Growth Metric that Moves Acquisition, Monetization, and Virality by Brian Balfour:

Most people think retention is so crucial simply because it means you lose fewer users than you otherwise would. Though this is true, it misses the critical point. Retention is the core of your growth model and influences every other input to your model. This is important because if you improve retention, you’ll also improve the rest of your funnel:

1. Retention drives acquisition. For many products, especially those that grow through virality or user generated content (UGC), retention has a double effect. As you retain more users, those additional users take more of the key actions that accelerate acquisition, either through sharing, inviting, word-of-mouth, or creating content. As more of those new users retain, more are acquired – improving retention sets off a self-reinforcing cycle that drives acquisition.

2. Retention improves monetization. When it comes to monetization, two important things happen with improved retention – you can retain a larger proportion of a cohort, and in doing so, make more money from that cohort within a given period of time, and you can increase the length of time that a cohort retains, increasing LTV.

3. Retention builds an acquisition competitive edge. As you increase retention, monetization, and LTV, you can pay more to acquire a customer. In doing so, you can push competitors out of acquisition channels, open up new channels that were previously too expensive, and grow faster.

4. Retention accelerates payback period. Payback period is the time it takes to break even on the cost to acquire a customer. It also determines how fast you can start reinvesting in acquisition to fuel growth. Improving retention can help shorten your payback period to grow faster.

Notes:
(1) Cf. A radical approach to marketing
(2) Cf. Sustainable growth vs. growth hacking
(3) Cf. Why retention is the key to growth

Improving retention helps growth in 4 ways


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from The One Growth Metric that Moves Acquisition, Monetization, and Virality by Brian Balfour:

Most people think retention is so crucial simply because it means you lose fewer users than you otherwise would. Though this is true, it misses the critical point. Retention is the core of your growth model and influences every other input to your model. This is important because if you improve retention, you’ll also improve the rest of your funnel:

1. Retention drives acquisition. For many products, especially those that grow through virality or user generated content (UGC), retention has a double effect. As you retain more users, those additional users take more of the key actions that accelerate acquisition, either through sharing, inviting, word-of-mouth, or creating content. As more of those new users retain, more are acquired – improving retention sets off a self-reinforcing cycle that drives acquisition.

2. Retention improves monetization. When it comes to monetization, two important things happen with improved retention – you can retain a larger proportion of a cohort, and in doing so, make more money from that cohort within a given period of time, and you can increase the length of time that a cohort retains, increasing LTV.

3. Retention builds an acquisition competitive edge. As you increase retention, monetization, and LTV, you can pay more to acquire a customer. In doing so, you can push competitors out of acquisition channels, open up new channels that were previously too expensive, and grow faster.

4. Retention accelerates payback period. Payback period is the time it takes to break even on the cost to acquire a customer. It also determines how fast you can start reinvesting in acquisition to fuel growth. Improving retention can help shorten your payback period to grow faster.

Notes:
(1) Cf. A radical approach to marketing
(2) Cf. Sustainable growth vs. growth hacking
(3) Cf. Why retention is the key to growth

Improving retention helps growth in 4 ways


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from The One Growth Metric that Moves Acquisition, Monetization, and Virality by Brian Balfour:

Most people think retention is so crucial simply because it means you lose fewer users than you otherwise would. Though this is true, it misses the critical point. Retention is the core of your growth model and influences every other input to your model. This is important because if you improve retention, you’ll also improve the rest of your funnel:

1. Retention drives acquisition. For many products, especially those that grow through virality or user generated content (UGC), retention has a double effect. As you retain more users, those additional users take more of the key actions that accelerate acquisition, either through sharing, inviting, word-of-mouth, or creating content. As more of those new users retain, more are acquired – improving retention sets off a self-reinforcing cycle that drives acquisition.

2. Retention improves monetization. When it comes to monetization, two important things happen with improved retention – you can retain a larger proportion of a cohort, and in doing so, make more money from that cohort within a given period of time, and you can increase the length of time that a cohort retains, increasing LTV.

3. Retention builds an acquisition competitive edge. As you increase retention, monetization, and LTV, you can pay more to acquire a customer. In doing so, you can push competitors out of acquisition channels, open up new channels that were previously too expensive, and grow faster.

4. Retention accelerates payback Continue reading “Improving retention helps growth in 4 ways”

Four ways to show you care about your team’s careers


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from The Front of the Jersey by Doug Weaver:

Call out the elephant in the room. “We both know that you won’t necessarily always work here…” can be the phrase that really opens up your dialogue with your employees and shows that you’re treating them as adults, not assets.

How does today’s action create long term value? Want your team members to get better at something? Frame the discussion around their long term value in the marketplace. Every rep has a stock price and that stock price is either going up or down.

Commit to them. Tell them that you want this to be the best place they’ll ever work, and that you’d like to be remembered as the boss who made them better at their craft. Then do what you say.

Put the relationships in long term context. Will there be a network of people out there who speak well of them in the future, or a network that’s felt slighted, overlooked or abused?

Notes:
(1) Thank you Brad Westbrook and Alon Zieve for the tip.
(2) Cf. Laszlo Bock’s eight steps to being a good manager
(3) Cf. Build self-confidence — but not your own

The most important job of a product leader


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from How to Run a Quarterly Product Strategy Meeting: A Board Meeting for Product by former VP/CPO at Netflix and Chegg, Gibon Biddle:

I think the most important job of a product leader is to outline a cohesive product strategy, along with metrics and tactics against these strategies. The way I define the product leader’s job is to delight customers, in margin-enhancing, hard-to-copy ways.

Your product strategy should define your key hypotheses about how you plan to deliver on these three dimensions. The metrics are how you measure your progress, and the tactics are simply projects or experiments against each of your key strategies.

Notes:
(i) Thank you Alon Zieve for the article recommendation.
(ii) Cf. First principles for startup founders (and product managers).
(iii) Cf. The heart of any growth strategy is core product value.

When freemium makes sense


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

Excerpt from Subscription Business Models Are Great for Some Businesses and Terrible for Others by Robbie Kellman Baxter:

I love freemium, the idea of combining a premium paid membership with a free membership that provides value forever. But freemium needs to work in service to a larger business strategy. Freemium works best in three scenarios:

– As a means of trial. Many people who have a free subscription to Dropbox get all of the online storage they need. But for others, as they make Dropbox part of their daily routine, they find they need more storage and greater functionality. As a result, they upgrade to the premium service.

– To create a networked effect. Each new member that joins LinkedIn for free creates additional value for the recruiters, salespeople and jobseekers paying for LinkedIn subscriptions. And if no one used the free version of LinkedIn, there’d be little reason for those people to pay at all.

– To serve as a marketing channel. Some people never pay for a SurveyMonkey subscription, because they only need small surveys sent to a few people, with limited analytics. But when those people send out their surveys, they are advertising for SurveyMonkey to everyone who receives the survey. If one of those survey recipients subscribes to the premium offering, the sender (who’s a free member) becomes a marketing channel for attracting and converting new members.

Notes:
(1) Thank you Daniel Shvartsman for the article recommendation.
(2) Note the similarities with Tom Tunguz’ The Continue reading “When freemium makes sense”

Managers’ biggest HR mistake, and how to fix it


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

I was chatting with someone who ran HR for a Fortune 500 company and is now an HR consultant. “What are managers’ biggest mistakes in HR?”, I asked him. “And what’s your best advice for them?” His answer:

Most companies succeed because of a small number of outstanding employees — the stars. But managers frequently make the mistake of devoting the majority of their time to under-performers. Instead, they should be devoting their time to these stars who truly drive their company’s performance.

So the most impactful advice I give managers is: identify your stars; let them know they are stars; and spend time thinking about how to empower them — how to give them responsibility, how to ensure they’re on challenging and impactful projects, and how to coach them for promotion.

Notes:
(1) Cf. The best thing you can do for your team.
(2) Cf. Should you hire superstars?

Managers’ biggest HR mistake, and how to fix it


This post is by DJ from A Founder's Notebook

I was chatting with someone who ran HR for a Fortune 500 company and is now an HR consultant. “What are managers’ biggest mistakes in HR?”, I asked him. “And what’s your best advice for them?” His answer:

Most companies succeed because of a small number of outstanding employees — the stars. But managers frequently make the mistake of devoting the majority of their time to under-performers. Instead, they should be devoting their time to these stars who truly drive their company’s performance.

So the most impactful advice I give managers is: identify your stars; let them know they are stars; and spend time thinking about how to empower them — how to give them responsibility, how to ensure they’re on challenging and impactful projects, and how to coach them for promotion.

Notes:
(1) Cf. The best thing you can do for your team.
(2) Cf. Should you hire superstars?