Category: geology

Everything You Need to Know on Carlin-Type Gold Deposits



The following content is sponsored by Nevada Exploration

 

Carlin-Type Gold Deposits: Everything You Need to Know

Nevada is one of the world’s most productive gold-mining regions, and it’s the high-grade Carlin-type gold deposits (CTGDs) that put the Silver State on the gold mining map.

Carlin-type gold deposits contain “invisible” or microscopic particles of gold that are deposited within a mineral called pyrite in sedimentary rocks. Needless to say, these deposits are named after the discovery of the Carlin Gold Deposit in 1961, which was the first of its kind.

Today, Carlin-type deposits make up the bulk of Nevada’s gold production. This infographic from our sponsor Nevada Exploration details everything you need to know about CTGDs.

The Building Blocks of Carlin-Type Gold Deposits

Nevada’s CTGDs contain 255 million ounces of gold, representing one of only six gold belts of this size in the world. Furthermore, 84% or 214 million ounces of Nevada’s CTGD gold is concentrated in just three camps:

  • Carlin camp: 118 million ounces
  • Cortez camp: 50 million ounces
  • Getchell camp: 46 million ounces

So, just how are these massive deposits of invisible gold formed?

Building Block #1:

Structures

The rocks that host CTGDs are typically found close to major geological structures in the Earth’s crust. These structures include:

  • Faults: A fracture or a zone of fracture between two rocks.
  • Thrust faults: A fault across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.
  • Folds: A wave-like structure that forms when rocks deform by bending.

These fractured zones (Read more...)

A Deep Dive Into the World’s Oceans, Lakes, and Drill Holes


This post is by Nick Routley from Visual Capitalist


Explore the full-size version of this chart by clicking here.

A Deep Dive Into the World's Oceans, Lakes, and Drill Holes

Credit: xkcd

Today’s chart is best viewed full-screen. Explore the high resolution version by clicking here.

Sailors have been circumnavigating the high seas for centuries now, but what could be found beneath the sunlit surface of the ocean remained a mystery until far more recently. In fact, it wasn’t until 1875, during the Challenger expedition, that humanity got it’s first concete idea of how deep the ocean actually was.

Today’s graphic, another fantastic piece by xkcd, is a unique and entertaining look at everything from Lake Superior’s ice encrusted shoreline down to blackest, inhospitable trench (which today bears the name of the expedition that first discovered it).

The graphic is packed with detail, so we’ll only highlight a few points of interest.

Deep Thoughts with Lake Baikal

Deep in Siberia, abutting a mountainous stretch of the Mongolian border, is the one of the most remarkable bodies of water on Earth: Lake Baikal. There are a number of qualities that make Lake Baikal stand out.

Depth: Baikal, located in a massive continental rift, is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642m (5,387ft). That extreme depth holds a lot of fresh water. In fact, an estimated 22% of all the world’s fresh water can be found in the lake.

Age: Baikal (which is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site) is estimated to be over 25 million years old, making it the most ancient lake on the (Read more...)

Visualizing the Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle



The following content is sponsored by British Columbia Regional Mining Alliance (BCRMA).

British Columbia's Golden Triangle

The Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle

At the heart of British Columbia’s mining industry lies the Golden Triangle. This region has helped transform the province’s mining industry into a significant source of revenue and investment.

In 2020, the Golden Triangle accounted for roughly 44% of the $422 million in mineral exploration expenditures in British Columbia. In 2019, the Red Chris and Brucejack mines contributed around $1 billion to the province’s estimated annual gross mining revenues.

This is infographic is sponsored by the B.C. Regional Mining Alliance (BCRMA) which brings the best of this region to the world through a partnership between indigenous groups, industry, and provincial government representatives.

Here is how the Golden Triangle began.

The Golden Triangle’s Unique Geology

Between 220 and 175 million years ago, the Golden Triangle’s wealth was forming deep in the Earth for the world to discover. Most metal deposits form from superheated water that cycle over many kilometers, collecting metal atoms as they rise to the surface of the Earth’s crust and settle into deposits.

Industry, government, and university geologists have worked for over a century to understand the Golden Triangle’s unique geology to uncover its mineral wealth. This unique geology cradles the world-class deposits that define the legendary “Golden Triangle” of British Columbia.

A History of Discovery and Mining in the Golden Triangle

Historical gold rushes brought mining to the area, but the region’s vast copper deposits will deliver (Read more...)

The History of the Abitibi Gold Belt



The following content is sponsored by the Clarity Gold

The Abitibi: Canada’s Golden Powerhouse

At the heart of Canada lies a greenstone belt that has provided the nation with more than 90% of its gold production. With more than 100 years of gold discovery in the Abitibi region located between Québec and Ontario, this area was the kiln that helped forge the Canadian mining industry.

Ever since the discovery of gold at Lac Fortune in 1906, the Abitibi has grown to become one of the world’s most prolific gold mining regions, and has produced over 190 million ounces of gold.

This graphic sponsored by Clarity Gold maps the history of gold discovery in the Abitibi and showcases the region’s overburden thickness. With a history of prolific discovery and production, there’s still plenty to explore under the Abitibi’s areas of thick overburden.

A Timeline of Gold Discovery in the Abitibi

Canada, known more for beaver pelts and timber, did not reveal its riches immediately. There were only a handful of gold discoveries in its early history. Gold was first discovered in 1823, on the shores of Rivière Chaudière in Québec, further east of the region known as the Abitibi today.

But as settlers spread west, gold surfaced in British Columbia and the Yukon in the late 1800s, kicking off the Cariboo and Klondike gold rushes. It wasn’t until the 1900s that gold was found in the Abitibi greenstone belt, marking the beginning of the modern era for the Canadian (Read more...)

The History of the Abitibi Gold Belt



The following content is sponsored by the Clarity Gold

The Abitibi: Canada’s Golden Powerhouse

At the heart of Canada lies a greenstone belt that has provided the nation with more than 90% of its gold production. With more than 100 years of gold discovery in the Abitibi region located between Québec and Ontario, this area was the kiln that helped forge the Canadian mining industry.

Ever since the discovery of gold at Lac Fortune in 1906, the Abitibi has grown to become one of the world’s most prolific gold mining regions, and has produced over 190 million ounces of gold.

This graphic sponsored by Clarity Gold maps the history of gold discovery in the Abitibi and showcases the region’s overburden thickness. With a history of prolific discovery and production, there’s still plenty to explore under the Abitibi’s areas of thick overburden.

A Timeline of Gold Discovery in the Abitibi

Canada, known more for beaver pelts and timber, did not reveal its riches immediately. There were only a handful of gold discoveries in its early history. Gold was first discovered in 1823, on the shores of Rivière Chaudière in Québec, further east of the region known as the Abitibi today.

But as settlers spread west, gold surfaced in British Columbia and the Yukon in the late 1800s, kicking off the Cariboo and Klondike gold rushes. It wasn’t until the 1900s that gold was found in the Abitibi greenstone belt, marking the beginning of the modern era for the Canadian (Read more...)

1 Billion Years of Tectonic Plate Movement in 40 Seconds


This post is by Carmen Ang from Visual Capitalist


1 Billion Years of Tectonic Plate Movement in 40 Seconds

According to plate tectonic theory, the Earth’s surface is made up of slabs of rock that are slowly shifting right under our feet.

Because of this constant movement, today’s Earth looks a lot different from what it did millions of years ago. Today’s animation looks at the Earth’s tectonic plate movement from 1 ga (geological time for 1 billion years ago) to the present-day, via EarthByte on YouTube.

Editor’s note: The video starts at time 1,000 ma (1,000 million years ago), and ticks down at the rate of about 25 million years every second.

The Emergence of Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate tectonics is a relatively new theory—in fact, according to National Geographic, it hadn’t become popular until the 1960s. However, the concept of continental movement was brewing long before it became widely accepted.

In 1912, German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed a theory he called continental drift. According to Wegener’s theory, Earth’s continents once formed a single, giant landmass, which he called Pangaea.

Over millions of years, Pangaea slowly broke apart, eventually forming the continents as they are today. Wegener believed this continental drift explained why the borders of South America and Africa looked like matching puzzle pieces. He also pointed to similar rock formations and fossils on these two continents as proof to back his theory.

Initially, the scientific community wasn’t on board with the theory of continental drift. But as more data emerged over the years, including research on seafloor spreading, the theory started to gain traction.

The Supercontinent Cycle

Nowadays, it’s believed that Pangea was just one of several supercontinents to mass together (and break apart) over the course of geological history.

The exact number of supercontinents is largely debated, but according to the Encylopedia of Geology, here are five (including Pangea) that are widely recognized:

  • Kenorland: 2.7-2.5 billion years ago
  • Nuna/Columbia: 1.6-1.4 billion years ago
  • Rodinia: 950–800 million years ago
  • Pannotia: 620-580 million years ago
  • Pangea: 325-175 million years ago

According to the theory, this cycle of breaking apart and coming together happens because of subduction, which occurs when tectonic plates converge with one another.

The supercontinent cycle also ties into ocean formation. The below example of the Wilson Cycle specifically keys in on how the Atlantic Ocean, and its predecessor, the Iapetus Ocean, were formed as supercontinents drifted apart:

the Wilson Cycle

Canada’s Gold Exploration Frontier: The Abitibi Greenstone Belt



The following content is sponsored by Maple Gold Mines.

The Abitibi: Canada’s Largest Gold District

Canada is home to many great gold districts, but none come close to the Abitibi greenstone belt.

Having produced over 200 million ounces of gold since 1901, the Abitibi belt has etched its place as Canada’s largest gold district. Today, the region is bustling with exploration activity and hosts three of the country’s largest gold mines.

The above infographic from Maple Gold Mines showcases what makes the Abitibi a prolific gold district, from its history and geology to current activity and the potential for discovery.

The Abitibi Greenstone Belt: Remarkable Geology and History

Over 2.6 billion years ago, the Earth’s natural processes of creation and destruction resulted in the formation of metal-rich volcanic rocks and deformation zones that comprise the Abitibi greenstone belt.

The Abitibi belt hosts several economically viable deposits of gold, silver, zinc, iron, copper, and other base metals. The types of deposits found there include gold-rich quartz-carbonate veins, copper porphyries, and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits.

Since mining began in the early 1900s, more than 124 mines have been set up in the Abitibi, and at least 15 of these have yielded over 3.5 million ounces of gold. What’s more, the total gold content of the belt, including past production and current reserves and resources, exceeds 300 million ounces.

The majority of the Abitibi’s rich gold deposits lie along fault lines in major deformation zones such as the Cadillac-Larder Lake (Read more...)

Erupting Gold Exploration Potential: The Pacific Ring of Fire



The following content is sponsored by Kalo Gold.

The Pacific Ring of Fire infographic

The Pacific Ring of Fire

From bubbling pits of lava to deep ocean sinkholes and everything in between, the Earth is full of geological wonders. The Pacific Ring of Fire is a prime example of one such marvel. Like a necklace of pearls, this long belt of active and inactive volcanoes spans 40,000 km along the tectonic plate boundaries of the Pacific Ocean.

While many people see volcanoes as something to fear, for the mining industry, they can present huge potential. In fact, ancient inactive volcanoes could eventually become profitable mines. With 75% of the earth’s volcanoes and 90% of all earthquakes, the Pacific Ring of Fire is home to many rich mineral deposits, such as gold, copper, molybdenum, and other metals.

Today’s infographic comes to us from Kalo Gold and highlights how the Pacific Ring of Fire’s geology enables the potential for mineral discovery.

Magmas to Metals: Mineral Deposits on the Pacific Ring of Fire

Volcanic activity at tectonic plate boundaries reveals the natural processes of creation and destruction that shape the Earth along its Pacific Rim. The Pacific Ring of Fire is built on two types of tectonic plate boundaries:

  • Convergent:
    Two tectonic plates moving towards each other, where the oceanic crust often subducts under the continental crust.
  • Divergent:
    Two tectonic plates moving away from each other, often resulting in rifts and earthquakes.

It is at these subduction zones where volcanic and seismic activity aids the formation of (Read more...)

Gold Exploration in Québec: Cartier Resources and the Benoist Project



The following content is sponsored by Cartier Resources

Gold Exploration in QuebecCartier Resources

Gold Exploration in Québec, and the Benoist Project

Gold exploration in Québec has a long and rich history. This legacy creates opportunities for the next generation of companies that have a strategy and the technology to uncover the next deposits of gold.

Today’s infographic highlights the work of Cartier Resources and its Benoist Project, located in the heart of the gold-mining region of Quebec, the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. Let’s dive in and see how the company is building on history to make new discoveries.

Building on History: Exploration at The Benoist Project

The Benoist Project has a history of work dating back to 1935. Prospectors first discovered mineralized boulders on the shores of Pusticamica Lake. Since then ~36,000 meters of exploration drilling revealed a gold deposit on the property.

In 2020, Cartier resources delivered a maiden resource on the property which revealed 234,000 ounces of gold (Measured and Indicated), with the help of modern exploration techniques.

Cartier Resources is drilling its 100%-owned Benoist Project to expand the resource at the Pusticamica deposit and discover new areas of gold mineralization adjacent to a known gold resource.

Data, Knowledge, and Technology in Action

Cartier Resources is deploying the latest in mineral exploration innovation, OreVision-IP. This technology reveals the next group of Pusticamica deposit-type targets.

Previous geophysical surveys using standard IP technology failed to detect the deposits at depth. However, OreVision-IP revealed more gold and exploration targets between 150 meters and 450 meters.

OreVision-IP generated (Read more...)