Category: Debt

Countries with the Highest Default Risk in 2022


This post is by Marcus Lu from Visual Capitalist


sovereign debt risk ranking

Countries with the Highest Default Risk in 2022

In May 2022, the South Asian nation of Sri Lanka defaulted on its debt for the first time. The country’s government was given a 30-day grace period to cover $78 million in unpaid interest, but ultimately failed to pay.

Not only does this impact Sri Lanka’s economic future, but it also raises an important question: which other countries are at risk of default?

To find out, we’ve used data from Bloomberg to rank the countries with the highest default risk.

The Sovereign Debt Vulnerability Ranking

Bloomberg’s Sovereign Debt Vulnerability Ranking is a composite measure of a country’s default risk. It’s based on four underlying metrics:

  • Government bond yields (the weighted-average yield of the country’s dollar bonds)
  • 5-year credit default swap (CDS) spread
  • Interest expense as a percentage of GDP
  • Government debt as a percentage of GDP

To better understand this ranking, let’s focus on Ukraine and El Salvador as examples.

CountryRankGovernment Bond
Yield (%)
5Y CDS SpreadInterest Expense
(% of GDP)
Government Debt
(% of GDP)
🇸🇻 El Salvador131.8%3,376 bps
(33.76%)
4.9%82.6%
🇺🇦 Ukraine860.4%10,856 bps
(100.85%)
2.9%49%

1 basis point (bps) = 0.01%

Why are Ukraine’s Bond Yields so High?

Ukraine has high default risk due to its ongoing conflict with Russia. To understand why, consider a scenario where Russia was to assume control of the country. If this happened, it’s possible that Ukraine’s existing debt obligations will never be repaid.

That (Read more...)

Charted: U.S. Consumer Debt Approaches $16 Trillion


This post is by Marcus Lu from Visual Capitalist


U.S. consumer debt approaches $16 trillion

Charted: U.S. Consumer Debt Approaches $16 Trillion

According to the Federal Reserve (Fed), U.S. consumer debt is approaching a record-breaking $16 trillion. Critically, the rate of increase in consumer debt for the fourth quarter of 2021 was also the highest seen since 2007.

This graphic provides context into the consumer debt situation using data from the end of 2021.

Housing Vs. Non-Housing Debt

The following table includes the data used in the above graphic. Housing debt covers mortgages, while non-housing debt covers auto loans, student loans, and credit card balances.

DateHousing Debt
(USD trillions)
Non-Housing Debt
(USD trillions)
Total Consumer Debt
(USD trillions)
Q1 20035.182.057.23
Q2 20035.342.047.38
Q3 20035.452.107.55
Q4 20035.962.108.06
Q1 20046.172.138.30
Q2 20046.342.128.46
Q3 20046.642.208.84
Q4 20046.832.229.05
Q1 20057.012.199.20
Q2 20057.232.269.49
Q3 20057.452.359.80
Q4 20057.672.3410.01
Q1 20068.022.3610.38
Q2 20068.352.4010.75
Q3 20068.652.4611.11
Q4 20068.832.4811.31
Q1 20079.032.4611.49
Q2 20079.332.5311.86
Q3 20079.562.5812.14
Q4 20079.752.6312.38
Q1 20089.892.6512.54
Q2 20089.952.6512.60
Q3 20089.982.6912.67
Q4 20089.972.7112.68
Q1 2009 (Read more...).852.6812.53
Q2 20099.772.6312.40
Q3 20099.652.6212.27
Q4 20099.552.6212.17
Q1 20109.53 (Read more...)

Visualizing the State of Global Debt, by Country


This post is by Raul Amoros from Visual Capitalist


View the expanded version of this infographic to see all countries.

Global Debt to GDP 2021

View the expanded version of this infographic to see all countries.

Visualizing the State of Global Debt, by Country

Since COVID-19 started its spread around the world in 2020, the global economy has been put to the test with supply chain disruptions, price volatility for commodities, challenges in the job market, and declining income from tourism. The World Bank has estimated that almost 97 million people have been pushed into extreme poverty as a result of the pandemic.

In order to help with this difficult situation, global governments have had to increase their expenditures to deal with higher healthcare costs, unemployment, food insecurity, and to help businesses to survive. Countries have taken on new debt to provide financial support for these measures, which has resulted in the highest global debt levels in half a century.

To analyze the extent of global debt, we’ve compiled debt to GDP data by country from the most recent World Economic Outlook report by the IMF.

Debt-to-GDP ratio by Country: The Top 10 Most Indebted Nations

The debt-to-GDP ratio is a simple metric that compares a country’s public debt to its economic output. By comparing how much a country owes and how much it produces, economists can measure a country’s ability to pay off its debt.

Let’s take a look at the top 10 countries in terms of debt to GDP:

RankCountry2021
#1Japan ??257%
#2Sudan ??210%
#3Greece ??207%
#4 (Read more...)

Green Bonds: Lasting Solutions For Climate Change



The following content is sponsored by IFC (World Bank Group)

green bonds infographic

Green Bonds: Lasting Solutions For Climate Change

How much will it cost to combat climate change? By some estimates, a staggering $50 trillion. And while this may seem like an impossibly daunting figure, you should know there is a solution to this financing gap: green bonds.

But having only been around for a little over a decade, they are still a relatively unfamiliar investment for many.

The above infographic from IFC explores the exciting world of green bonds, which are gaining serious traction in financial markets.

Green Bonds 101

To begin, green bonds are not that different from regular bonds. Both are debt instruments or fixed income securities that pool capital from investors for a specified project or objective. But while Fortune 500 companies issue bonds to generally enhance their bottom line, green bonds differ in their commitment to eco-friendly ventures and sustainability.

Here’s a closer look at the anatomy of bonds, including green bonds:

  • Yield: The fixed coupon rate as a % of the market value of the bond price.
  • Maturity: The predetermined length of the bond.
  • Credit Rating: The rating bonds receive to determine their riskiness and quality.
  • Bond Price: The price of the bond purchase (typically starts out in $1,000 denominations).
  • Coupon: The payment on the bond usually occurs in semi-annual or quarterly installments.

Unlike bonds which have been around for centuries, dating back to the Mesopotamian times, green bonds are (Read more...)

Killing Debt With Tech To Save Americans w/ Jason Saltzman of Relief


This post is by MPD from @MPD - Medium


Jason Saltzman is the Co-Founder of Relief and a well known member of the New York start-up community. Relief is an app that helps people navigate the craziness when dealing with debt. According to Jason, Relief is here to kill your debt.

The statistics about debt in America are staggering:

  • Average amount of debt = $6k/person
  • Average number of credit cards = 8 credit cards/person
  • 1 out of 3 people are behind on credit card payments

During the chat we discussed the intricacies regarding debt in America, what it takes to build a strong community and strategies to make winning content on TikTok.

Listen via your preferred platform here or watch below.


Killing Debt With Tech To Save Americans w/ Jason Saltzman of Relief was originally published in @MPD on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.

Equity Monday: A global selloff to kick off Disrupt week



Hello and welcome back to Equity, TechCrunch’s venture capital-focused podcast where we unpack the numbers behind the headlines.

This is Equity Monday, our weekly kickoff that tracks the latest private market news, talks about the coming week, digs into some recent funding rounds and mulls over a larger theme or narrative from the private markets. You can follow the show on Twitter here. I also tweet.

A few things this morning:

  • I shook up the show format a little, including how the script came together and how it was organized. Hit me up on Twitter if you have notes.
  • Disrupt is this week, so strap thyself in for the best tech event of the year, coming to your living room. The Equity team is hosting — between the group of us — a zillion panels and one of the two stages. Come hang out with us. It’s going to be on heck of a show.
  • On the news front, the global stock market is taking a whacking. US stocks are set to fall after European stocks went lower thanks to concerns that the Chinese property developer Evergrande and its constituent debt issues could spread to other parts of the market, possibly leading to contagion.
  • Cryptos are also off sharply in the last 24 hours, so there sems to be little refuge in today’s markets.
  • A French hosting company is going public, an Indian used-car marketplace raised a boatload of (Read more...)

Forum Brands secures $100M in debt financing to acquire more e-commerce brands



Forum Brands, an e-commerce acquisition platform, announced today that it has secured $100 million in debt funding from TriplePoint Capital.

The financing comes just just over two months after the startup raised $27 million in an equity funding round led by Norwest Venture Partners.

Brenton Howland, Ruben Amar and Alex Kopco founded New York-based Forum Brands in the summer of 2020, during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

“We’re buying what we think are A+ high-growth e-commerce businesses that sell predominantly on Amazon and are looking to build a portfolio of standalone businesses that are category leaders, on and off Amazon,” Howland told me at the time of the company’s last raise. “A source of inspiration for us is that we saw how consumer goods and services changed fundamentally for what we think is going to be for decades and decades to come, accelerating the shift toward digital.”

Since we covered the company in June, Forum Brands says it has acquired several new brands, including Bonza, a seller of pet products, and Simka Rose, a baby-focused brand specializing in eco-friendly products. Simka sells in the U.S. and the EU and is an example of how Forum is expanding globally, Amar said.

Howland and Amar emphasize that the Forum team continues to focus on quality over quantity when evaluating potential acquisitions. Although they meet with 15-20 founders a week, they are selective in which companies they choose to acquire.

“We continue to be a quality-first buyer, and (Read more...)

Visualizing U.S. Household Debt, by Generation


This post is by Aran Ali from Visual Capitalist


The Generational Power Index
The Generational Power Index
Introducing our new index, which ranks U.S. generations on their economic, political, and cultural influence.

>> Download the Report (.pdf)

U.S. household debt by generation

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The Briefing

  • Generation X is the most indebted generation on average, with $140,643 of household debt
  • Younger generations are witnessing their debts growing at a greater pace relative to older Americans

Visualizing U.S. Household Debt, by Generation

The year 2020 could be categorized as one where debt grew across the board. In the U.S., every generation except the Silent Generation saw their debts rise in the last year.

But how much debt does each generational household owe?

Generation20192020Growth (%)
Generation Z (18-24)$9,593$16,04367.2%
Millennials (25-40)$78,396$87,44811.5%
Generation X (41-56)$135,841$140,6433.5%
Baby Boomers (57-75)$96,984$97,2900.3%
Silent Generation (76+)$43,255$41,281-4.6%

Gen X are the most indebted Americans followed by the Baby Boomers. The breakdown of debt by age group suggests the typical American’s debts grow with adulthood to a certain age, at which point it begins to taper off.

(Read more...)

Timeline: 150 Years of U.S. National Debt


This post is by Marcus Lu from Visual Capitalist


Looking Back at 150 Years of U.S. Debt

The total U.S. national debt reached an all-time high of $28 trillion* in March 2021, the largest amount ever recorded.

Recent increases to the debt have been fueled by massive fiscal stimulus bills like the CARES Act ($2.2 trillion in March 2020), the Consolidated Appropriations Act ($2.3 trillion in December 2020), and most recently, the American Rescue Plan ($1.9 trillion in March 2021).

To see how America’s debt has gotten to its current point, we’ve created an interactive timeline using data from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). It’s crucial to note that the data set uses U.S. national debt held by the public, which excludes intergovernmental holdings.

*Editor’s note: This top level figure includes intragovernmental holdings, or the roughly $6 trillion of debt owed within the government to itself.

What Influences U.S. Debt?

It’s worth pointing out that the national debt hasn’t always been this large.

Looking back 150 years, we can see that its size relative to GDP has fluctuated greatly, hitting multiple peaks and troughs. These movements generally correspond with events such as wars and recessions.

DecadeGross debt at start
of decade
(USD billions)
Avg. Debt Held By Public
Throughout Decade
(% of GDP)
Major Events
1900-4.8%-
1910-10.0%World War I
1920-22.9%The Great Depression
1930$1636.4%President Roosevelt's New Deal
1940$4075.1%World War II
1950$25756.8%Korean War
1960$28637.3%Vietnam War
1970$37126.1% (Read more...)

Visualizing the Snowball of Government Debt


This post is by Marcus Lu from Visual Capitalist


Visualizing the Snowball of Government Debt in 2021

Visualizing the Snowball of Government Debt in 2021

As we approach the second half of 2021, many countries around the world are beginning to relax their COVID-19 restrictions.

And while this signals a return to normalcy for much of the global economy, there’s one subject that’s likely to remain controversial: government debt.

To see how each country is faring in the aftermath of an unprecedented global borrowing spree, this graphic from HowMuch.net visualizes debt-to-GDP ratios using April 2021 data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Ranking the Top 10 in Government Debt

Government debt is often analyzed through the debt-to-GDP metric because it contextualizes an otherwise massive number.

Take for example the U.S. national debt, which currently sits at over $27 trillion. In isolation this figure sounds daunting, but when expressed as a % of U.S. GDP, it works out to a more relatable 133%. This format also allows us to make a better comparison between countries, especially when their economies differ in size.

With that being said, here are the top 10 countries in terms of debt-to-GDP. For further context, we’ve included their 2019 and 2020 values as well.

Rank (2021)CountryDebt-to-GDP (2019)Debt-to-GDP (2020)Debt-to-GDP (April 2021)
#1?? Japan235%256%257%
#2?? Sudan200%262%212%
#3?? Greece185%213%210%
#4?? Eritrea189%185%176%
#5?? Suriname93%166%157%
#6?? Italy135%156%157%
#7?? Barbados127%149%143%
#8?? Maldives78%143%140%
#9?? Cape Verde125%139%138%
(Read more...)