Negotiations are won by whoever cares less


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When you can’t walk away from a negotiation, improve your leverage by turning short-term relationships into long-term relationships.

Pareto optimal solutions require a trade-off to improve any criterion

Nivi: Do you want to talk about Pareto optimal?

Naval: Pareto optimal is another concept from game theory, along with Pareto superior.

Pareto superior means something is better in some ways while being equal or better in other ways. It’s not worse in any way. This is an important concept when you’re negotiating. If you can make a solution Pareto superior to where it was before, you will always do that. 

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Schelling Point: Cooperating Without Communicating


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People who can’t communicate can cooperate by anticipating the other person’s actions.

Use social norms to cooperate when you can’t communicate

Nivi: Let’s talk about Schelling points.

Naval: The Schelling point is a game theory concept made famous by Thomas Schelling in his book, The Strategy of Conflict, which I recommend.

It’s about multiplayer games where people respond based on what they think the other person’s response will be. He came up with a mathematical formalization to answer: How do you get people who cannot communicate with each other to coordinate?

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Kelly Criterion: Avoid Ruin


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Don’t ruin your reputation or get wiped to zero.

Don’t bet everything on one big gamble

Nivi: Let’s chat about the Kelly criterion. 

Naval: The Kelly criterion is a popularized mathematical formulation of a simple concept. The simple concept is: Don’t risk everything. Stay out of jail. Don’t bet everything on one big gamble. Be careful how much you bet each time, so you don’t lose the whole kitty. 

If you’re a gambler, the Kelly criterion mathematically formulates how much you should wager per hand, even if you have an edge—because even when you have an edge, you can still lose. Let’s say you have 51-to-49 edge. Every gambler knows not to bet the whole kitty on that 51-to-49 edgebecause you could lose everything and won’t get to come back to the average.

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Principal-agent Problem: Act Like an Owner


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If you think and act like an owner, it’s only a matter of time until you become the owner.

A principal is an owner; an agent is an employee

Nivi: We spoke earlier about picking a business model that has leverage from scale economies, network effects and zero marginal cost of replication. There were a few other ideas on the cutting-room floor that I want to go through with you. The first one is the principal-agent problem.

Naval: So mental models are all the rage. Everyone’s trying to become smarter by adopting mental models. I think mental models are interesting, but I don’t think explicitly in terms of mental-model checklists. I know Charlie Munger does, but that’s just not how I think.

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Envy Can Be Useful, or It Can Eat You Alive


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Envy can give you a powerful boost, or it can eat you alive if you let it follow you.

Suffering through the wrong thing can motivate you to find the right thing

Nivi: Do you want to tell us about jobs you had growing up and the one that kicked off your fanatical obsession with creating wealth?

Naval: This gets a little personal, and I don’t want to humble-brag. There was a thread going around TwitterName Five Jobs You’ve Heldand every rich person on there was signaling how they’ve held normal jobs. I don’t want to play that game. 

I’ve had menial jobs. There are people who had it worse than me and people who had it better than me. 

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Being Ethical Is Long-term Greedy


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If you cut fair deals, you will get paid in the long run.

Ethics isn’t something you study; it’s something you do

Nivi: In the “How to Get Rich” tweetstorm you listed things you suggest people study, like programming, sales, reading, writing and arithmetic. One of the items that ended up on the cutting-room floor was ethics, which you also suggest people study.

Naval: I was going to put that out as a concession to people who believe making money is evil and that the only way to make it is to be evil. But then I realized ethics is not necessarily something you study. It’s something you think aboutand something you do.

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We Should Eventually Be Working for Ourselves


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This advice is for anybody who wants to be entrepreneurial

Nivi: Who is this advice targeted to? Is it for my Lyft driver? Is it for an Internet entrepreneur? Is it for somebody who wants to start a YouTube channel?

Naval: Because it comes from someone who’s steeped in Silicon Valley and tech companies, it’s always going to have a bias towards that.

But I think it’s good for anybody who wants to be entrepreneurial. Anybody who wants to control their own life. Anybody who wants to deterministically and reliably improve their ability to create wealth over time, is patient, and is looking at it for the long-haul. 

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Accountability Means Letting People Hate on You


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The common mistakes people make on the path to creating wealth.

Transcript

Nivi: We’ve finished discussing the tweetstorm. We’re going to spend some time on Q&A and discussing some of the tweets on the cutting room floor, that didn’t make it into the tweetstorm. My first question is:

Do you think there are some common failure modes or typical things that people do wrong when they’re trying to apply this advice?

Naval: A lot of people don’t understand what specific knowledge really is or how to quote unquote obtain it.

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How to Get Rich: Every Episode


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This giant episode collects every interview between Naval and Nivi on How to Get Rich. These interviews are based on Naval’s tweetstorm

The transcript has been edited for clarity.

1. Seek Wealth, Not Money or Status

The difference between wealth, money and status.

Naval is a prolific tech investor and founder of AngelList

Nivi: You probably know Naval from his Twitter account.

We’re going to be talking about his tweetstorm on “How to get rich (without getting lucky).” We’re going to go through most of the tweets in detail, give Naval a chance to expand on them and generally riff on the topic. He’ll probably throw in some ideas that he hasn’t even published before.

Naval’s the co-founder of AngelList and Epinions. He’s also a prolific tech investor in companies like Twitter, Uber, and many more.

I’m the co-founder of AngelList with Naval. And I co-authored the Venture Hacks blog with him back in the day.

Naval: The How To Get Rich tweetstorm definitely hit a nerve and went viral. A lot of people say it was helpful and reached across aisles.

People outside of the tech industry, people in all walks of life, people want to know how to solve their money problems. Everyone vaguely knows that they want to be wealthy, but they don’t have a good set of principles to do it by.

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Productize Yourself


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Figure out what you’re uniquely good at and apply as much leverage as possible.

Transcript

Figure out what you’re uniquely good at and apply as much leverage as possible 

Nivi: You summarized this entire tweetstorm with two words. “Productize yourself.”

Naval: Productize and yourself. Yourself has uniqueness. Productize have leverage. Yourself has accountability. Productize has specific knowledge. Yourself also has specific knowledge in there. So all of these pieces, you can combine them into these two words.

Whenever you’re doing anything in business, if you’re looking towards the long-term of getting wealthy you should ask yourself, “Is this authentic to me? Is it myself that I am projecting?” And then, “Am I productizing it? Am I scaling it? Am I scaling with labor or with capital or with code or with media?” So it’s a very handy, simply pneumonic.

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There Are No Get Rich Quick Schemes


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Get rich quick schemes are just someone else getting rich off you.

Transcript

There are no get rich quick schemes

Nivi: We skipped one tweet because I wanted to cover all of the tweets on the topic of the long term. And the tweet that we skipped was, “There are no get rich quick schemes. That’s just someone else getting rich off you.”

Naval: This goes back to the world being an efficient place. If there’s an easy way to get rich it’s already been exploited. And there are a lot of people who will sell you ideas and schemes on how to make money but they’re just always selling you some $79.95 course or some audiobook or some seminar .

Which is fine, everyone needs to eat. People need to make a living. They might actually have really good tips but if they’re giving you actionable, high quality advice that acknowledges that it’s a difficult journey and will take a lot of time, then I think that’s realistic.

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A Calm Mind, a Fit Body, a House Full of Love


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When you’re finally wealthy, you’ll realize it wasn’t what you were seeking in the first place.

Transcript

When you’re wealthy, you’ll realize it wasn’t what you were seeking

Nivi: The last tweet on the topic of working for the long term is that “When you’re finally wealthy, you’ll realize it wasn’t what you were seeking in the first place. But that’s for another day.”

Naval: That’s a multi-hour topic in of itself. First of all I thought it was a really clever way to end the whole thing because it disarms a whole set of people who say, “What’s the point of getting rich?” Because there’s a lot of people who just like the status signal, virtue signal, against the idea of wealth creation or making money. So it was just a good way to disarm all of them.

But, it’s also true. In that the things that you really want in life, yes money will solve all your money problems but it doesn’t get you everywhere.

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Reject Most Advice


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Most advice is people giving you their winning lottery ticket numbers.

Transcript

The best founders listen to everyone but make up their own mind

Nivi: Regarding the guy who gets rich in five years, one of the tweets that you had on the cutting room floor was: avoid people who got rich quickly, they’re just giving you their winning lottery ticket numbers.

Naval: This is generally true of advice anyway, which is it’s back to Scott Adams, systems not goals. If you ask a specific person what worked for them very often it’s just like they’re reading out the exact set of things worked for them which might not be applicable for you. They’re just reading you out their winning lottery ticket numbers.

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Eventually You Will Get What You Deserve


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Transcript

On a long enough time scale you will get paid

Nivi: We’re still talking about working for the long term, the next tweet on that topic is “Apply specific knowledge with leverage and eventually you will get what you deserve.” I would also add to that apply judgment, apply accountability and apply the skill of reading.

Naval: This one is just a glib way of saying that it takes time, even once you have all of these pieces in place, there is an indeterminate amount of time that you’re going to have to put in. And if you’re counting you’ll run out of patience before it actually arrives.

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Play Stupid Games, Win Stupid Prizes


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Transcript

Businesses that seem like they’re in direct competition really aren’t

Nivi:  I think when you’re being authentic, you don’t really mind competition that much. Yeah, it pisses you off and it inspires some fear and jealousy and all the other emotions that come along with it, but also you don’t really mind because you’re more oriented towards the goal and the mission and worst case you get some ideas from them. And there’s often ways to work with the competition in a positive way and it ends up increasing the size of the market for you.

Naval: Yeah sometimes it depends on the nature of the business. Silicon Valley tech industry businesses tend to be winner-take-all. At least the good ones. And so when you see competition it can make you fly into a rage because it really does endanger Continue reading “Play Stupid Games, Win Stupid Prizes”

Escape Competition Through Authenticity


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Summary

  • Competition can lead you to playing the wrong game.
  • No one can compete with you on being you.
  • In entrepreneurship, the masses are never right.
  • Combine your vocation and avocation.

Transcript

Competition will trap you in a lesser game

Nivi: This reminds me of your tweet about escaping competition through authenticity. It sounds like part of this is a search for who you are.

Naval: It’s both a search, and a recognition because sometimes when we search our egos, we want to be something that we are not. And our friends and family are better at telling us actually who we are, or looking back at what we’ve done is a better indicator of who we are.

Peter Thiel talks a lot about how competition is besides the point. It’s counterproductive. We’re highly memetic creatures, we copy what everybody else is Continue reading “Escape Competition Through Authenticity”

Keep Redefining What You Do


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Summary

  • Become the best in the world at what you do. Keep redefining what you do until this is true.
  • Find founder-product-market fit

Transcript

Keep redefining what you do until you’re the best at what you do

Nivi: We just finished talking about the importance of working hard and valuing your time. Next there’s a few tweets on the topic of working for the long term. The first tweet is, “Become the best in the world at what you do. Keep redefining what you do until this is true.”

Naval: If you really want to get paid in this world, you want to be number one at whatever it is that you’re doing. And it can be niche, that’s the point. It can literally be, you’re getting paid for just being you.

At this point some of the more successful people Continue reading “Keep Redefining What You Do”

Be Too Busy to “do Coffee”


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Summary

  • You should be too busy to “do coffee”, while still keeping an uncluttered calendar.
  • People will meet with you when you have proof of work.
  • Networking is overrated even early in your career.

Transcript

Be too busy to “do coffee” while keeping an uncluttered calendar

Naval: Then we squander our time with the death of 1,000 cuts. Another tweet I had was, “You should be too busy to do coffee, while still keeping an uncluttered calendar.” People who know me, know that I’m famous for simultaneously doing two things. One is having a very clean calendar. I have almost no meetings on it.

There are people that I meet with, when they see my calendar they almost weep, while at the same time, I am busy all the time. I’m always doing something. It’s usually “work-related” but it is whatever Continue reading “Be Too Busy to “do Coffee””

Work As Hard As You Can


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Summary

  • Work as hard as you can. Even though what you work on and who you work with are more important.
  • Nobody really works 80 hours a week.
  • Inspiration is perishable.
  • Impatience with actions, patience with results.

Transcript

Work as hard as you can

Naval: Let’s talk about hard work. There’s this battle that happens in Twitter a lot between, should you work hard and should you not. David Hauser’s on there saying, “It’s like you’re slave driving people.” Keith Rabois is always on there saying, “No, all the great founders worked their fingers to the bone.”

They’re talking past each other. First of all, they’re talking about two different things. David is talking about employees and a lifestyle business, which is fine. Your number one thing in life, if you’re doing that, is not getting wealthy. You have a Continue reading “Work As Hard As You Can”

Set and Enforce an Aspirational Hourly Rate


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Summary

  • Set and enforce an aspirational hourly rate.
  • You can’t penny pinch your way to wealth.
  • My aspirational rate was $5,000/hr.
  • If you can outsource something for less than your hourly rate, do it.
  • Your hourly rate should seem absurdly high 3:39.

Transcript

Nivi: We covered the skills that you need to get rich. That was specific knowledge, accountability, leverage, judgment, and life-long learning. Let’s talk a little bit about the importance of working hard and valuing your time.

Set and enforce an aspirational hourly rate

Naval: No one is going to value you more than you value yourself. You just have to set a very high personal hourly rate and you have to stick to it. Even since I was young, I just decided I was worth a lot more than the market though I was worth, but I started Continue reading “Set and Enforce an Aspirational Hourly Rate”