Shapes of Recovery: When Will the Global Economy Bounce Back?


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Shape of Economic Recovery

The Shape of Economic Recovery, According to CEOs

Is the glass half full, or half empty?

Whenever the economy is put through the ringer, levels of optimism and pessimism about its potential recovery can vary greatly. The current state mid-pandemic is no exception.

This graphic first details the various shapes that economic recovery can take, and what they mean. We then dive into which of the four scenarios are perceived the most likely to occur, based on predictions made by CEOs from around the world.

The ABCs of Economic Recovery

Economic recovery comes in four distinct shapes—L, U, W, and V. Here’s what each of these are characterized by, and how long they typically last.

  • L-shape
    This scenario exhibits a sharp decline in the economy, followed by a slow recovery period. It’s often punctuated by persistent unemployment, taking several years to recoup back to previous levels.
  • U-shape
    Also referred to as the “Nike Swoosh” recovery, in this scenario the economy stagnates for a few quarters and up to two years, before experiencing a relatively healthy rise back to its previous peak.
  • W-shape
    This scenario offers a tempting promise of recovery, dips back into a sharp decline, and then finally enters the full recovery period of up to two years. This is also known as a “double-dip recession“, similar to what was seen in the early 1980s.
  • V-shape
    In this best-case scenario, the sharp decline in the economy is quickly and immediately followed by a rapid recovery back to its previous peak in less than a year, bolstered especially by economic measures and strong consumer spending.

Another scenario not covered here is the Z-shape, defined by a boom after pent-up demand. However, it doesn’t quite make the cut for the present pandemic situation, as it’s considered even more optimistic than a V-shaped recovery.

Depending on who you ask, the sentiments about a post-pandemic recovery differ greatly. So which of these potential scenarios are we really dealing with?

How CEOs Think The Economy Could Recover

The think tank The Conference Board surveyed over 600 CEOs worldwide, to uncover how they feel about the likelihood of each recovery shape playing out in the near future.

The average CEO felt that economic recovery will follow a U-shaped trajectory (42%), eventually exhibiting a slow recovery coming out of Q3 of 2020—a moderately optimistic view.

However, geography seems to play a part in these CEO estimates of how rapidly things might revert back to “normal”. Over half of European CEOs (55%) project a U-shaped recovery, which is significantly higher than the global average. This could be because recent COVID-19 hotspots have mostly shifted to other areas outside of the continent, such as the U.S., India, and Brazil.

Here’s how responses vary by region:

Region L-shape U-shape W-shape V-shape
Global (N=606) 32% 42% 16% 11%
U.S. (N=103) 26% 42% 23% 9%
Europe (N=110) 29% 55% 12% 4%
China (N=122) 25% 43% 11% 21%
Japan (N=95) 49% 26% 23% 1%
Gulf Region (N=16) 57% 26% 17%

In the U.S. and Japan, 23% of CEOs expect a second contraction to occur, meaning that economic activity could undergo a W-shape recovery. Both countries have experienced quite the hit, but there are stark differences in their resultant unemployment rates—15% at its peak in the U.S., but a mere 2.6% in Japan.

In China, 21% of CEOs—or one in five—anticipate a quick, V-shaped recovery. This is the most optimistic outlook of any region, and with good reason. Although economic growth contracted by 6.8% in the first quarter, China has bounced back to a 3.2% growth rate in the second quarter.

Finally, Gulf Region CEOs feel the most pessimistic about potential economic recovery. In the face of an oil shock, 57% predict the economy will see an L-shaped recovery that could result in depression-style stagnation in years to come.

The Economic Recovery, According to Risk Analysts

At the end of the day, CEO opinions are all over the map on the potential shape of the economic recovery—and this variance likely stems from geography, cultural biases, and of course the status of their own individual countries and industries.

Despite this, portions of all cohorts saw some possibility of an extended and drawn-out recovery. Earlier in the year, risk analysts surveyed by the World Economic Forum had similar thoughts, projecting a prolonged recession as the top risk of the post-COVID fallout.

It remains to be seen whether this will ultimately indeed be the trajectory we’re in store for.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Shapes of Recovery: When Will the Global Economy Bounce Back? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart


This post is curated by Keith Teare. It was written by Iman Ghosh. The original is [linked here]

World Economy 2019 $88 Trillion

The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart

The global economy can seem like an abstract concept, yet it influences our everyday lives in both obvious and subtle ways. Nowhere is this clearer than in the current economic state amid the throes of the pandemic.

This voronoi-style visualization from HowMuch relies on gross domestic product (GDP) data from the World Bank to paint a picture of the global economy—which crested $87.8 trillion in 2019.

Editor’s note: Annual data on economic output is a lagging indicator, and is released the following year by organizations such as the World Bank. The figures in this diagram provide a snapshot of the global economy in 2019, but do not necessarily represent the impact of recent developments such as COVID-19.

Top 10 Countries by GDP (2019)

In the one-year period since the last release of official data in 2018, the global economy grew approximately $2 trillion in size—or about 2.3%.

The United States continues to have the top GDP, accounting for nearly one-quarter of the world economy. China also continued to grow its share of global GDP, going from 15.9% to 16.3%.

Rank Country GDP % of Global GDP
#1 🇺🇸 U.S. $21.4T 24.4%
#2 🇨🇳 China $14.3T 16.3%
#3 🇯🇵 Japan $5.1T 5.8%
#4 🇩🇪 Germany $3.9T 4.4%
#5 🇮🇳 India $2.9T 3.3%
#6 🇬🇧 UK $2.8T 3.2%
#7 🇫🇷 France $2.7T 3.1%
#8 🇮🇹 Italy $2.0T 2.3%
#9 🇧🇷 Brazil $1.8T 2.1%
#10 🇨🇦 Canada $1.7T 2.0%
Top 10 Countries $58.7 trillion 66.9%

In recent years, the Indian economy has continued to have an upward trajectory—now pulling ahead of both the UK and France—to become one of the world’s top five economies.

In aggregate, these top 10 countries combine for over two-thirds of total global GDP.

2020 Economic Contractions

So far this year, multiple countries have experienced temporary economic contractions, including many of the top 10 countries listed above.

The following interactive chart from Our World in Data helps to give us some perspective on this turbulence, comparing Q2 economic figures against those from the same quarter last year.

One of the hardest hit economies has been Peru. The Latin American country, which is about the 50th largest in terms of GDP globally, saw its economy contract by 30.2% in Q2 despite efforts to curb the virus early.

Spain and the UK are also feeling the impact, posting quarterly GDP numbers that are 22.1% and 21.7% smaller respectively.

Meanwhile, Taiwan and South Korea are two countries that may have done the best at weathering the COVID-19 storm. Both saw minuscule contractions in a quarter where the global economy seemed to grind to a halt.

Projections Going Forward

According to the World Bank, the global economy could ultimately shrink 5.2% in 2020—the deepest cut since WWII.

See below for World Bank projections on GDP in 2020 for when the dust settles, as well as the subsequent potential for recovery in 2021.

Country/ Region / Economy Type 2020 Growth Projection 2021E Rebound Forecast
United States -6.1% 4.0%
Euro Area -9.1% 4.5%
Advanced economies -7.0% 3.9%
Emerging economies -2.5% 4.6%
East Asia and Pacific -0.5% 6.6%
Europe and Central Asia -4.7% 3.6%
Latin America and the Caribbean -7.2% 2.8%
Middle East and North Africa -4.2% 2.3%
South Asia -2.7% 2.8%
Sub-Saharan Africa -2.8% 3.1%
Global Growth -5.2% 4.2%

Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects, released June 2020

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

World Economy 2019 $88 Trillion

The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart

The global economy can seem like an abstract concept, yet it influences our everyday lives in both obvious and subtle ways. Nowhere is this clearer than in the current economic state amid the throes of the pandemic.

This voronoi-style visualization from HowMuch relies on gross domestic product (GDP) data from the World Bank to paint a picture of the global economy—which crested $87.8 trillion in 2019.

Editor’s note: Annual data on economic output is a lagging indicator, and is released the following year by organizations such as the World Bank. The figures in this diagram provide a snapshot of the global economy in 2019, but do not necessarily represent the impact of recent developments such as COVID-19.

Top 10 Countries by GDP (2019)

In the one-year period since the last release of official data in 2018, the global economy grew approximately $2 trillion in size—or about 2.3%.

The United States continues to have the top GDP, accounting for nearly one-quarter of the world economy. China also continued to grow its share of global GDP, going from 15.9% to 16.3%.

Rank Country GDP % of Global GDP
#1 🇺🇸 U.S. $21.4T 24.4%
#2 🇨🇳 China $14.3T 16.3%
#3 🇯🇵 Japan $5.1T 5.8%
#4 🇩🇪 Germany $3.9T 4.4%
#5 🇮🇳 India $2.9T 3.3%
#6 🇬🇧 UK $2.8T 3.2%
#7 🇫🇷 France $2.7T 3.1%
#8 🇮🇹 Italy $2.0T 2.3%
#9 🇧🇷 Brazil $1.8T 2.1%
#10 🇨🇦 Canada $1.7T 2.0%
Top 10 Countries $58.7 trillion 66.9%

In recent years, the Indian economy has continued to have an upward trajectory—now pulling ahead of both the UK and France—to become one of the world’s top five economies.

In aggregate, these top 10 countries combine for over two-thirds of total global GDP.

2020 Economic Contractions

So far this year, multiple countries have experienced temporary economic contractions, including many of the top 10 countries listed above.

The following interactive chart from Our World in Data helps to give us some perspective on this turbulence, comparing Q2 economic figures against those from the same quarter last year.

One of the hardest hit economies has been Peru. The Latin American country, which is about the 50th largest in terms of GDP globally, saw its economy contract by 30.2% in Q2 despite efforts to curb the virus early.

Spain and the UK are also feeling the impact, posting quarterly GDP numbers that are 22.1% and 21.7% smaller respectively.

Meanwhile, Taiwan and South Korea are two countries that may have done the best at weathering the COVID-19 storm. Both saw minuscule contractions in a quarter where the global economy seemed to grind to a halt.

Projections Going Forward

According to the World Bank, the global economy could ultimately shrink 5.2% in 2020—the deepest cut since WWII.

See below for World Bank projections on GDP in 2020 for when the dust settles, as well as the subsequent potential for recovery in 2021.

Country/ Region / Economy Type 2020 Growth Projection 2021E Rebound Forecast
United States -6.1% 4.0%
Euro Area -9.1% 4.5%
Advanced economies -7.0% 3.9%
Emerging economies -2.5% 4.6%
East Asia and Pacific -0.5% 6.6%
Europe and Central Asia -4.7% 3.6%
Latin America and the Caribbean -7.2% 2.8%
Middle East and North Africa -4.2% 2.3%
South Asia -2.7% 2.8%
Sub-Saharan Africa -2.8% 3.1%
Global Growth -5.2% 4.2%

Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects, released June 2020

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The $88 Trillion World Economy in One Chart appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Animated Map: The Comparative Might of Continents


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Animated Map: The Comparative Might of Continents

We’ve come quite a long way since the time of Pangea. Today, the world’s continents are home to over 7.8 billion people, and each one is unique in its own way.

This video from the data visualization tool Vizzu compares the surface area, population, and GDP of the continents—all in terms of their contribution to the world’s total. Let’s dive further into the results of each category.

Click through to source to see the country breakdowns. Antarctica has been excluded from these calculations.

Surface Area: Does Size Matter?

When it comes to sheer land mass, Asia emerges on top with over one-third of the global surface area. On that front, it certainly has a little help from the combined forces of Russia and China, even as the former overlaps Eastern Europe as well.

Rank Region Share of Global Surface Area Largest Country
#1 Asia 36.5% 🇷🇺 Russia
#2 Africa 22.3% 🇩🇿 Algeria
#3 North America 17.1% 🇨🇦 Canada
#4 South America 13.2% 🇧🇷 Brazil
#5 Oceania 6.4% 🇦🇺 Australia
#6 Europe 4.6% 🇷🇺 Russia

Africa comes in second, but doesn’t lag behind by much. A stone’s throw from Europe, Algeria is the largest country on the continent—and the 10th largest in the world.

Failing to grasp the true size of Africa is a common mental mistake, as many maps systematically underestimate its scale. The continent could easily fit the entirety of China, India, the U.S., and multiple European countries within its borders.

Population: Packing People Together

Another way to look at things is in terms of the number of inhabitants in each region. Asia is once again on top, with almost two-thirds of the world squeezed onto the continent.

Rank Region Share of Global Population Most Populous Country
#1 Asia 61.8% 🇨🇳 China
#2 Africa 16.1% 🇳🇬 Nigeria
#3 Europe 8.2% 🇷🇺 Russia
#4 North America 7.7% 🇺🇸 U.S.
#5 South America 5.6% 🇧🇷 Brazil
#6 Oceania 0.5% 🇦🇺 Australia

Asia’s lead in population is impressive, but it’s a margin that is unlikely to last forever.

By the year 2100—new estimates show the populations India and China could start to dip. Meanwhile Nigeria, which is already Africa’s most populous continent with near 196 million people, could potentially quadruple in numbers in the same time frame.

In this metric, Europe also rises to third place. This is thanks again to the approximately 146 million people within Russia. However, if only the countries located completely within the continent are considered, Germany’s population of nearly 84 million would win out.

GDP: Emerging Wealth Overtakes

Finally, economic output—measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—is the most common way to assess the relative prosperity of countries and continents.

At this, the U.S. dominates with $21.4T according to the World Bank, though it swaps places with China which boasts $23.5T when adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP).

Rank Region Share of Global GDP Richest Country (both nominal and PPP)
#1 Asia 36.9% 🇨🇳 China
#2 North America 28.9% 🇺🇸 U.S.
#3 Europe 23.9% 🇩🇪 Germany
#4 South America 5.1% 🇧🇷 Brazil
#5 Africa 3.1% 🇳🇬 Nigeria
#6 Oceania 2.1% 🇦🇺 Australia

Source: World Bank for both GDP Nominal and PPP, 2019.

Global wealth share drops sharply between Europe and South America, though it’s worth noting that rising inequality is also hidden under the surface within many high-income regions.

In terms of overall GDP, the Asian continent makes up the lion’s share. Asia is also home to many of the world’s emerging markets—which means there may be an even more pronounced shift of wealth towards the East in coming decades.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Animated Map: The Comparative Might of Continents appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Such Great Heights: Where Are the World’s Tallest Buildings?


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

The Tallest Buildings on Every Continent 1200px

Such Great Heights: The World’s Tallest Buildings

It seems that humanity is always vying to exceed our past accomplishments, and nowhere is the evidence clearer than in the tallest buildings that make up our cities.

We’ve previously looked at how the architectural feats of humanity have simply grown in magnitude over time, tracing this progress as far back as the Stone Age.

The question now is, how much higher and further into the skies can we reach? This infographic by Alan’s Factory Outlet looks at the glittering urban skyscrapers on every continent. We also examine some interesting facts about each region.

Asia: Growing Ever Upwards

The first name on this list certainly needs no introduction. Dubai’s Burj Khalifa is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Middle East. With just a one minute elevator ride to the Burj Khalifa’s pinnacle, it must seem like even the sky is no longer the limit.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
Burj Khalifa 🇦🇪 Dubai, UAE 828m / 2,715ft 163
Shanghai Tower 🇨🇳 Shanghai, China 632m / 2,073ft 128
Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel 🇸🇦 Mecca, Saudi Arabia 601m / 1,971ft 120
Goldin Finance 117 🇨🇳 Tianjin, China 597m / 1,958ft 128
Ping An Finance Center 🇨🇳 Shenzhen, China 592m / 1,965ft 115

Ping An Finance Center from Shenzhen edges into fifth place on the list, and it’s worth mentioning the speed of change occurring in the city. China’s hi-tech capital will see the completed construction of approximately 51 buildings over 145m (476ft) by the end of 2020.

North America: Concrete Jungle

The One World Trade Center, built to memorialize the loss of the Twin Towers after September 11th, 2001, is also informally called the “Freedom Tower”. It’s exactly 1,776ft high—symbolizing the year the U.S. Declaration of Independence was adopted.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
One World Trade Center 🇺🇸 New York City, U.S. 541m / 1,776ft 104
Central Park Tower 🇺🇸 New York City, U.S. 472m / 1,550ft 98
Willis Tower 🇺🇸 Chicago, U.S. 442.1m / 1,451ft 110
111 West 57th Street 🇺🇸 New York City, U.S. 435m / 1,428ft 82
One Vanderbilt 🇺🇸 New York City, U.S. 427m / 1,401ft 67

While the Central Park Tower has reached its full height, parts of the interior are still undergoing construction. The price of luxury apartments in the complex start at $7 million for a two-bedroom, just in case you had any extra change lying around.

In fact, the illustrious New York City holds four of the top five buildings on the continent. However, a nod also goes to the Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago, an imposing office building which held the title of world’s tallest building for 25 years, until the Petronas Towers were erected in Kuala Lumpur.

Europe: Russia’s Reign

The top five tallest buildings in Europe can all be found in Russia. What’s more, those from Moscow are all clustered within a single towering business district known as “Moscow-City”.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
Lakhta Center 🇷🇺 Saint Petersburg, Russia 462.5m / 1,517ft 87
Federation Tower: East Tower 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia 373.7m / 1,226ft 101
OKO: South Tower 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia 354.1m / 1,161ft 85
Neva Tower 2 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia 345m / 1,132ft 79
Mercury City Tower 🇷🇺 Moscow, Russia 338.8m / 1,112ft 75

This begs the question—why doesn’t Europe build more skyscrapers? There’s an interesting historical reasoning behind this. As North America’s new age ideals and influence on the world stage grew, European cultural values focused on preserving heritage.

Of course, with globalization, things have changed somewhat, and major financial centers of London, Paris and more boast unique skylines of their own.

Oceania: The Views Down Under

Australia’s buildings unsurprisingly dominate the tallest ones in the region. In the surfer’s paradise, Q1 on the Gold Coast has a twist in its design—literally. Its architecture is loosely based on studies of ribbons moving in the wind, as they wrap around the tower.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
Q1 🇦🇺 Gold Coast, Australia 323m / 1,058 ft 78
Australia 108 🇦🇺 Melbourne, Australia 316.7m / 1,039 ft 100
Eureka Tower 🇦🇺 Melbourne, Australia 297m / 974.4ft 91
Crown Sydney 🇦🇺 Sydney, Australia 271.3m / 889.1ft 75
Aurora Melbourne Central 🇦🇺 Melbourne, Australia 270.5m / 889.1 ft 92

The Eureka Tower has a fascinating story behind it, too. It’s named after the 1854 Victorian gold rush, with elements of the building reflecting this history—from a gold crown to a red stripe for revolutionary bloodshed.

South America: Views From the Top

The tallest buildings in South America are mainly residential, and often found in Brazil, Argentina, and Venezuela—but Chile is the one standout exception to this rule.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
Gran Torre Santiago 🇨🇱 Santiago, Chile 300m / 984ft 62
Yachthouse Residence Club Towers 1 and 2 🇧🇷 Balneário Camboriú, Brazil 281m / 922ft 81
Alvear Tower 🇦🇷 Buenos Aires, Argentina 239m / 784ft 54
Infinity Coast 🇧🇷 Balneário Camboriú, Brazil 235m / 771ft 66
Parque Central Complex: East Tower 🇻🇪 Caracas, Venezuela 225m / 738ft 59

Gran Torre Santiago is a retail and office complex, and the largest shopping mall across Latin America. It’s often considered the heart of Chile, and built to hold its ground steadfastly in the earthquake-prone country.

Africa: Budding Buildings

Located in South Africa’s largest city, The Leonardo is the jewel of Johannesburg. The tallest building in Africa was also designed by an architectural team of mostly women.

Building City, Country Height # Floors
The Leonardo 🇿🇦 Johannesburg, South Africa 234m / 768ft 55
Carlton Center 🇿🇦 Johannesburg, South Africa 223m / 732ft 50
Britam Tower 🇰🇪 Nairobi, Kenya 200m / 660ft 31
Ponte City Apartments 🇿🇦 Johannesburg, South Africa 173m / 568ft 54
UAP Tower 🇰🇪 Nairobi, Kenya 163m / 535 ft 33

For African nations, these tallest buildings mean much more than just breaking engineering records. In a journal article, it’s posited that skyscrapers can act as a symbol of power and the continent’s drive towards modernity.

Future Superstar Skyscrapers

A few more mammoth buildings are expected to rise up in the next couple years. Saudi Arabia’s 167-floor Jeddah Tower, while currently on hold, could someday take over the first place crown.

Meanwhile, Dubai’s set to outdo itself—and compete directly with Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom Tower is inspired by the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and is proposed to break the 1 kilometer-high (or 0.6 mile) mark not yet achieved by any building.

Who knows what greater heights we could scale this century?

Each of us is carving a stone, erecting a column, or cutting a piece of stained glass in the construction of something much bigger than ourselves.

—Adrienne Clarkson, Former Governor General of Canada

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Such Great Heights: Where Are the World’s Tallest Buildings? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The World Population in 2100, by Country


This post is curated by Keith Teare. It was written by Iman Ghosh. The original is [linked here]

Global Population Estimates 2100

The World Population in 2100, by Country

In 2015, the United Nations predicted that the global population could surpass 11 billion by the end of the century.

Last year, the UN revised these estimates, but the numbers it came up with were still well above 10 billion. These regular projections from the UN have been the status quo—until now.

Plenty of signs have pointed to there being a population plateau, but recent research from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), published in The Lancet, suggests that the number of people on this planet may actually start to shrink well before the year 2100.

Here’s a closer look at these complex projections.

UN vs. IHME Population Estimates

According to the UN, the world population is set to steadily rise over the years:

  • 2030: 8.5 billion
  • 2050: 9.7 billion
  • 2100: 10.9 billion

In contrast, IHME paints a different picture. It projects the population to actually peak at 9.7 billion in 2064. Following this trajectory, there could be 8.8 billion people in 2100, approximately 2 billion fewer than previously thought.

Various demographic factors are behind these differences—higher life expectancies, migration rates, and lower fertility rates. For this last factor, independent drivers including contraceptive access and higher educational attainment were also considered.

A shifting age structure is also a key aspect of this transition. By 2100, over a quarter of the world or nearly 2.37 billion will be aged 65 years and above.

The Most Populous Countries in 2100

Amid all these demographic sea changes, which countries will come out on top?

Despite an overall decline in numbers to 1.09 billion people in 2100, India moves up from second to first place on the population leaderboard.

Rank Country Population (2017) Rank Country Population (2100E)
#1 🇨🇳 China 1.4B #1 🇮🇳 India 1.09B
#2 🇮🇳 India 1.38B #2 🇳🇬 Nigeria 791M
#3 🇺🇸 U.S. 325M #3 🇨🇳 China 732M
#4 🇮🇩 Indonesia 258M #4 🇺🇸 U.S. 336M
#5 🇵🇰 Pakistan 214M #5 🇵🇰 Pakistan 248M
#6 🇧🇷 Brazil 212M #6 🇨🇩 DR Congo 246M
#7 🇳🇬 Nigeria 206M #7 🇮🇩 Indonesia 229M
#8 🇧🇩 Bangladesh 157M #8 🇪🇹 Ethiopia 223M
#9 🇷🇺 Russia 146M #9 🇪🇬 Egypt 199M
#10 🇯🇵 Japan 128M #10 🇹🇿 Tanzania 186M

The populations of both India and China will begin to contract after the mid-century—and it’s predicted that China’s total population will drop by almost half to 732 million by 2100.

Led by Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region that will continue to see growth by century’s end. In fact, four of the top 10 countries in the world in terms of population count will be located in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Tightly Packed Together

One final thing to consider is how population density may look in 2100, with many more people clustered in the same areas. For example, Nigeria is dealing with a land area nearly 11 times smaller than the U.S.—but it will have more than double the population.

Country 2100 Pop. Area (Millions, km²/mi²) Population Density per km² (mi²)
🇳🇬 Nigeria 791M 0.92M km² (0.36M mi²) 856.3 (2217.7)
🇮🇳 India 1.09B 3.29M km² (1.27M mi²) 331.6 (858.8)
🇵🇰 Pakistan 248M 0.88M km² (0.34M mi²) 281.2 (728.3)
🇪🇹 Ethiopia 223M 1.10M km² (0.42M mi²) 202.7 (531.0)
🇪🇬 Egypt 199M 1.01M km² (0.39M mi²) 197.0 (510.1)
🇹🇿 Tanzania 186M 0.95M km² (0.37M mi²) 196.3 (508.5)
🇮🇩 Indonesia 229M 1.90M km² (0.74M mi²) 120.2 (311.4)
🇨🇩 DR Congo 246M 2.35M km² (0.91M mi²) 104.9 (271.7)
🇨🇳 China 732M 9.60M km² (3.70M mi²) 76.3 (197.8)
🇺🇸 U.S. 336M 9.83M km² (3.80M mi²) 34.2 (88.5)

Regardless of how the future population count shakes out, it’s clear that these heavyweight countries will undergo significant transformation in the coming decades.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The World Population in 2100, by Country appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The World Population in 2100, by Country


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Global Population Estimates 2100

The World Population in 2100, by Country

In 2015, the United Nations predicted that the global population could surpass 11 billion by the end of the century.

Last year, the UN revised these estimates, but the numbers it came up with were still well above 10 billion. These regular projections from the UN have been the status quo—until now.

Plenty of signs have pointed to there being a population plateau, but recent research from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), published in The Lancet, suggests that the number of people on this planet may actually start to shrink well before the year 2100.

Here’s a closer look at these complex projections.

UN vs. IHME Population Estimates

According to the UN, the world population is set to steadily rise over the years:

  • 2030: 8.5 billion
  • 2050: 9.7 billion
  • 2100: 10.9 billion

In contrast, IHME paints a different picture. It projects the population to actually peak at 9.7 billion in 2064. Following this trajectory, there could be 8.8 billion people in 2100, approximately 2 billion fewer than previously thought.

Various demographic factors are behind these differences—higher life expectancies, migration rates, and lower fertility rates. For this last factor, independent drivers including contraceptive access and higher educational attainment were also considered.

A shifting age structure is also a key aspect of this transition. By 2100, over a quarter of the world or nearly 2.37 billion will be aged 65 years and above.

The Most Populous Countries in 2100

Amid all these demographic sea changes, which countries will come out on top?

Despite an overall decline in numbers to 1.09 billion people in 2100, India moves up from second to first place on the population leaderboard.

Rank Country Population (2017) Rank Country Population (2100E)
#1 🇨🇳 China 1.4B #1 🇮🇳 India 1.09B
#2 🇮🇳 India 1.38B #2 🇳🇬 Nigeria 791M
#3 🇺🇸 U.S. 325M #3 🇨🇳 China 732M
#4 🇮🇩 Indonesia 258M #4 🇺🇸 U.S. 336M
#5 🇵🇰 Pakistan 214M #5 🇵🇰 Pakistan 248M
#6 🇧🇷 Brazil 212M #6 🇨🇩 DR Congo 246M
#7 🇳🇬 Nigeria 206M #7 🇮🇩 Indonesia 229M
#8 🇧🇩 Bangladesh 157M #8 🇪🇹 Ethiopia 223M
#9 🇷🇺 Russia 146M #9 🇪🇬 Egypt 199M
#10 🇯🇵 Japan 128M #10 🇹🇿 Tanzania 186M

The populations of both India and China will begin to contract after the mid-century—and it’s predicted that China’s total population will drop by almost half to 732 million by 2100.

Led by Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region that will continue to see growth by century’s end. In fact, four of the top 10 countries in the world in terms of population count will be located in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Tightly Packed Together

One final thing to consider is how population density may look in 2100, with many more people clustered in the same areas. For example, Nigeria is dealing with a land area nearly 11 times smaller than the U.S.—but it will have more than double the population.

Country 2100 Pop. Area (Millions, km²/mi²) Population Density per km² (mi²)
🇳🇬 Nigeria 791M 0.92M km² (0.36M mi²) 856.3 (2217.7)
🇮🇳 India 1.09B 3.29M km² (1.27M mi²) 331.6 (858.8)
🇵🇰 Pakistan 248M 0.88M km² (0.34M mi²) 281.2 (728.3)
🇪🇹 Ethiopia 223M 1.10M km² (0.42M mi²) 202.7 (531.0)
🇪🇬 Egypt 199M 1.01M km² (0.39M mi²) 197.0 (510.1)
🇹🇿 Tanzania 186M 0.95M km² (0.37M mi²) 196.3 (508.5)
🇮🇩 Indonesia 229M 1.90M km² (0.74M mi²) 120.2 (311.4)
🇨🇩 DR Congo 246M 2.35M km² (0.91M mi²) 104.9 (271.7)
🇨🇳 China 732M 9.60M km² (3.70M mi²) 76.3 (197.8)
🇺🇸 U.S. 336M 9.83M km² (3.80M mi²) 34.2 (88.5)

Regardless of how the future population count shakes out, it’s clear that these heavyweight countries will undergo significant transformation in the coming decades.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The World Population in 2100, by Country appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Visualizing the State of Democracy, by Country


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

View the full-sized interactive version of this graphic

Tracking 12 Years of Changes in Global Democracy Levels

Visualizing the State of Democracy, by Country

View the full-sized interactive version of this infographic by clicking here

From Norway to North Korea, governing systems differ around the world. But has the world become more or less free in the past decade?

This visualization from Preethi Lodha demonstrates how democracy levels of 167 countries have changed since 2006. The original data comes from the Democracy Index, which is compiled annually by the Economist Intelligence Unit.

Four Levels of Democracy

First, it’s important to understand the classifications made by the Democracy Index.

Based on answers to 60 questions across a nation’s electoral process, civil liberties, government functions, political participation and political culture, countries are assigned a range of scores in the Democracy Index.

Based on these scores, a nation automatically falls into one of the following four types of governance. Here’s which category fits the bill, depending on the range of scores:

Governance Type Description Example Democracy Index Score
Authoritarian Regime Nations which exhibit frequent
infringements of civil liberties,
unfair elections, and rampant censorship.
🇨🇳 China
🇰🇵 North Korea
🇦🇪 UAE
0.0-3.99
Hybrid Regime Nations with regular electoral
fraud, corruption, and low
political participation,
and suppressed opposition.
🇰🇪 Kenya
🇵🇰 Pakistan
🇹🇷 Turkey
4.0-5.99
Flawed Democracy Nations with fair elections,
underdeveloped political
participation and culture,
with minor issues in civil liberty
and government functions.
🇧🇷 Brazil
🇮🇳 India
🇺🇸 U.S.
6.0-7.99
Full Democracy Nations where political freedoms
are respected with limited
problems, governmental
checks and balances,
and diverse media exist.
🇦🇺 Australia
🇨🇦 Canada
🇳🇴 Norway
8.0-10.0

One thing that stands out is that many hybrid regimes and flawed democracies are also considered high-potential emerging markets, but are held back by their political instability.

Notable Improvements

In recent times, public demonstrations have been a major cause behind increases in Democracy Index scores and changes in governance types.

Algeria moved from authoritarian to hybrid regime in 2019, the only country in the Arab region to do so. This came after sustained protests against the previous president, Abdelaziz Bouteflika—who had served for 20 years.

Chile experienced similar turmoil, for the better. After a spike in the scale of middle class unrest over inequality and unfair policies in late 2019, the political participation moved it up from a flawed to full democracy.

Sliding Countries

The U.S. has one of the oldest democracies in the world. However, it was downgraded from a full to a flawed democracy as of the 2016 index, a status that had been “teetering” since before then, according to the report that year.

Venezuela dropped into an authoritarian regime in 2017, and it doesn’t seem to be improving anytime soon. The state was found to use the COVID-19 pandemic as an excuse to crack down on any dissent against the government.

Global Change in Democracy Levels

All in all, the average global democracy score worldwide emerged at 5.48 in 2019, although it’s clear that certain countries pull this value towards the opposite extremes.

North Korea, an authoritarian regime with a 1.08 score, has remained consistently one of the lowest countries on the index. Meanwhile, its alphabetical successor Norway steadily keeps up its high score streak, with 9.87 being the best examples of a full democracy in 2019.

Here’s how many countries made up each system of governance over the years, and the global Democracy Index score for that year.

Year Authoritarian Hybrid Flawed Democracy Full Democracy Score
2006 55 33 53 26 5.52
2008 52 35 52 28 5.55
2010 57 31 53 26 5.46
2011 54 35 53 25 5.49
2012 52 37 53 25 5.52
2013 51 40 51 25 5.53
2014 52 39 52 24 5.55
2015 52 36 59 20 5.55
2016 51 40 57 19 5.52
2017 52 39 57 19 5.48
2018 53 39 55 20 5.48
2019 54 37 54 22 5.48

Authoritarian regimes peaked in 2010 with 57 countries, whereas the full democracy category peaked in 2008 with 28 countries.

Since 2006, the average global score has slid from 5.52 to 5.48, and the total of countries categorized under full democracy decreased from 26 to 22.

Does this signal an increasingly divided world? And will the global pandemic—which is already delaying elections—have a further pronounced effect on backsliding these democracy scores?

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Visualizing the State of Democracy, by Country appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Every Presidential Candidate’s Running Mate Since WWII


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Every Presidential Candidate's Running Mate Since WWII

Every Presidential Candidate’s Running Mate Since WWII

Since the U.S. Constitution was first instituted, there have been 48 vice presidents. They’ve supported presidents in seeing the country through wars, economic expansions and contractions, a global pandemic—and much more.

A president’s success depends on the strength of their team, so it’s only natural that as second-in-command, the pick for a VP carries significant weight. In some cases, they can even make or break the race to secure a spot in the White House.

In this graphic, we take a look at the hand-picked running mates of presidential hopefuls since 1940, including the upcoming November 2020 elections.

Running More Than Once

The graphic highlights 33 running mates, out of which nine have ran for VP more than once. Here’s how their number of terms compare, and who continued on to become an eventual presidential candidate:

Running Mate Party VP terms served Presidential candidate?
Mike Pence 🔴 R Won 1 term
Currently running for second term
No
Joe Biden 🔵 D Won both terms Currently running for president
Dick Cheney 🔴 R Won both terms No
Al Gore 🔵 D Won both terms Yes, but did not win first term
Dan Quayle 🔴 R Won 1 out of 2 terms No
George H. W. Bush 🔴 R Won both terms Yes, won both terms
Spiro Agnew 🔴 R Won both terms Resigned during VP second term
Richard Nixon 🔴 R Won both terms Yes, won both terms
Walter Mondale 🔵 D Won 1 out of 2 terms Yes, but did not win first term

Of the running mates since WWII, Republicans Richard Nixon and George H. W. Bush are the only two to have served as president after being vice presidents for two previous terms—unless Joe Biden wins in November 2020.

Prior Gigs

What career paths did aspiring VPs take before running on the big ticket?

Interestingly, 2 of 3 running mates profiled in today’s graphic had a prior background as a lawyer before choosing to enter politics.

A curious exception to the typical career path is that of former professional football player Jack Kemp, who was chosen as the running mate for Bob Dole’s unsuccessful presidential bid in 1996.

At the President’s Right Hand

The vice president is the first in line of succession for the Oval Office, in the event that the sitting president dies, resigns, or is removed from office. Throughout history, nine VPs have ascended to presidency this way, of which three occurred since 1940.

  • After Franklin D. Roosevelt’s death in 1945, Harry S. Truman ascended to the presidency.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson became the President upon John F. Kennedy’s assassination in 1963.
  • Following evidence of political corruption, Spiro Agnew resigned in 1973. He was replaced by Gerald Ford, who then became President after Nixon’s post-Watergate resignation in 1974.

Richard Nixon, Bill Clinton, and Donald Trump are three Presidents who have been through the impeachment process, but were later acquitted by the Senate. Otherwise, the list of VPs ending up as the commander-in-chief might look much more different.

The Youngest and Oldest Running Mates

Based on the first time they ran on the ticket, the average running mate is 54 years old. In contrast, the average presidential candidate is 58 years old.

Comparing the age difference between presidential candidates and their running mates paints a unique picture. The biggest age gaps both occurred in 2008:

Running Mate Candidate Age Gap

There was a 28-year difference between older candidate John McCain (72) and younger VP pick Sarah Palin (44) on the Republican ticket. On the Democratic side, younger candidate Barack Obama (47) and older VP pick Joe Biden (66) saw a 19-year gap.

Harry S. Truman’s historic win in 1948 was considered a surprising political longshot. His running mate, Alben W. Barkley was the oldest running mate ever picked, 71 years at the time.

Meanwhile, Richard Nixon was one of the youngest running mates to be chosen, 39 years in 1956—second only to John C. Breckinridge (36 years old in 1856). Finally, at age 92 years in 2020, Walter Mondale is the oldest living former VP.

Cracking the Glass Ceiling

Last but not least, there have only been three women selected as VP running mates to date.

  • Geraldine Ferraro became the first woman VP nominee for the Democratic Party in 1984.
  • Although she had only two years of political experience as governor of Alaska, Sarah Palin was the first female Republican VP nominee in 2008.
  • Kamala Harris, a former prosecutor with almost four years of experience as a Senator, is the first woman of color to be nominated on any major party’s ticket in 2020.

Palin herself shared a few words of wisdom for Harris across the aisle:

Congrats to the democrat VP pick 🇺🇸 Climb upon Geraldine Ferraro’s and my shoulders, and from the most amazing view in your life consider lessons we learned…

—Sarah Palin (via Instagram)

Could Harris become the first ever right-hand woman? We’ll find out in a few months.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Every Presidential Candidate’s Running Mate Since WWII appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

AIoT: When Artificial Intelligence Meets the Internet of Things


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

AIoT: When Artificial Intelligence Meets the Internet of Things

AIoT: When AI Meets the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technology helping us to reimagine daily life, but artificial intelligence (AI) is the real driving force behind the IoT’s full potential.

From its most basic applications of tracking our fitness levels, to its wide-reaching potential across industries and urban planning, the growing partnership between AI and the IoT means that a smarter future could occur sooner than we think.

This infographic by TSMC highlights the breakthrough technologies and trends making that shift possible, and how we’re continuing to push the boundaries.

AI + IoT = Superpowers of Innovation

IoT devices use the internet to communicate, collect, and exchange information about our online activities. Every day, they generate 1 billion GB of data.

By 2025, there’s projected to be 42 billion IoT-connected devices globally. It’s only natural that as these device numbers grow, the swaths of data will too. That’s where AI steps in—lending its learning capabilities to the connectivity of the IoT.

The IoT is empowered by three key emerging technologies:

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    Programmable functions and systems that enable devices to learn, reason, and process information like humans.
  • 5G Networks
    Fifth generation mobile networks with high-speed, near-zero lag for real time data processing.
  • Big Data
    Enormous volumes of data processed from numerous internet-connected sources.

Together, these interconnected devices are transforming the way we interact with our devices at home and at work, creating the AIoT (“Artificial Intelligence of Things”) in the process.

The Major AIoT Segments

So where are AI and the IoT headed together?

There are four major segments in which the AIoT is making an impact: wearables, smart home, smart city, and smart industry:

1. Wearables

Wearable devices such as smartwatches continuously monitor and track user preferences and habits. Not only has this led to impactful applications in the healthtech sector, it also works well for sports and fitness. According to leading tech research firm Gartner, the global wearable device market is estimated to see more than $87 billion in revenue by 2023.

2. Smart Home

Houses that respond to your every request are no longer restricted to science fiction. Smart homes are able to leverage appliances, lighting, electronic devices and more, learning a homeowner’s habits and developing automated “support.”

This seamless access also brings about additional perks of improved energy efficiency. As a result, the smart home market could see a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25% between 2020-2025, to reach $246 billion.

3. Smart City

As more and more people flock from rural to urban areas, cities are evolving into safer, more convenient places to live. Smart city innovations are keeping pace, with investments going towards improving public safety, transport, and energy efficiency.

The practical applications of AI in traffic control are already becoming clear. In New Delhi, home to some of the world’s most traffic-congested roads, an Intelligent Transport Management System (ITMS) is in use to make ‘real time dynamic decisions on traffic flows’.

4. Smart Industry

Last but not least, industries from manufacturing to mining rely on digital transformation to become more efficient and reduce human error.

From real-time data analytics to supply-chain sensors, smart devices help prevent costly errors in industry. In fact, Gartner also estimates that over 80% of enterprise IoT projects will incorporate AI by 2022.

The Untapped Potential of AI & IoT

AIoT innovation is only accelerating, and promises to lead us into a more connected future.

Category Today Tomorrow
Edge computing Smart thermostats
Smart appliances
Home robots
Autonomous vehicles
Voice AI Smart speakers Natural language processing (NLP)
ePayment voice authentication
Vision AI Massive object detection Video analytics on the edge
Super 8K resolution

The AIoT fusion is increasingly becoming more mainstream, as it continues to push the boundaries of data processing and intelligent learning for years to come.

Just like any company that blissfully ignored the Internet at the turn of the century, the ones that dismiss the Internet of Things risk getting left behind.

Jared Newman, Technology Analyst

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post AIoT: When Artificial Intelligence Meets the Internet of Things appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The 20 Most and Least Profitable Companies, Per Employee


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Profit per employee by company and sector

The 20 Most and Least Profitable Companies, Per Employee

The Fortune 500 is an elite club of the biggest American businesses, which combined to generate profits of over $1.2 trillion in 2019.

But how much profit do these companies make on a per employee basis?

This visualization uncovers the answer by comparing the 20 companies with the most and least returns per employee, using calculations from Tipalti (based on the Fortune 500 list).

Top 20: Most Profit per Employee

Diving right in, the companies that make the most money per employee may surprise you.

Housing giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac take two of the top three spots, bringing in $1.9 million and $1.0 million per employee respectively in 2019.

The two U.S. government sponsored enterprises (GSEs) are major players in the secondary mortgage market, buying and repackaging nearly half the mortgages in the country. The duo was allowed to retain their profits as of October 2019, instead of returning them to the U.S. Treasury.

Company Sector Profit per Employee Profits ($M) Employees
Fannie Mae
(Federal National Mortgage Association)
Financials $1,888,000 $14,160 7,500
KKR Financials $1,448,699 $2,005 1,384
Freddie Mac
(Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)
Financials $1,046,721 $7,214 6,892
NRG Energy Energy $969,631 $4,438 4,577
EOG Resources Energy $943,103 $2,735 2,900
Biogen Health Care $795,811 $5,889 7,400
Blackstone Group Financials $705,680 $2,050 2,905
ConocoPhillips Energy $691,250 $7,189 10,400
Enterprise Products Partners Energy $628,904 $4,591 7,300
Visa Business Services $619,487 $12,080 19,500
Simon Property Group Financials $560,533 $2,102 3,750
Gilead Sciences Health Care $456,441 $5,386 11,800
Oneok Energy $443,789 $1,279 2,882
FM Global Financials $443,391 $2,479 5,591
Mastercard Business Services $436,452 $8,118 18,600
Cheniere Energy Energy $423,529 $648 1,530
Facebook Technology $411,308 $18,485 44,942
Apple Technology $403,328 $55,256 137,000
Cincinnati Financial Financials $384,038 $1,997 5,200
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Financials $373,989 $3,701 9,896

Apple employs 137,000 people—the largest workforce by far among the 40 companies profiled—but still makes $403,328 per employee. Facebook is the only other tech giant to bring in more money per employee at $411,308.

Bottom 20: Least Profit per Employee

On the other end of the spectrum, Uber is one of the most well-known companies currently bleeding profits, losing $316K per employee. In fact, the ride-hailing service lost approximately $5.2 billion in the second quarter of 2020 alone.

Company Sector Profit per Employee Profits ($M) Employees
EnLink Midstream Energy -$825,830 -$1,119 1,355
Brighthouse Financial Financials -$556,391 -$740 1,330
PG&E Energy -$332,870 -$7,656 23,000
Frontier Communications Telecommunications -$322,706 -$5,911 18,317
Uber Technologies Technology -$316,208 -$8,506 26,900
Hess Energy -$229,859 -$408 1,775
Coty Household Products -$199,158 -$3,784 19,000
Devon Energy Energy -$197,222 -$355 1,800
Altria Group Food, Beverages & Tobacco -$177,123 -$1,293 7,300
National Oilwell Varco Energy -$175,927 -$6,095 34,645
Equitable Holdings Financials -$171,584 -$1,733 10,100
Chesapeake Energy Energy -$133,913 -$308 2,300
CenturyLink Telecommunications -$123,976 -$5,269 42,500
Mosaic Chemicals -$84,683 -$1,067 12,600
Alcoa Materials -$81,522 -$1,125 13,800
Targa Resources Energy -$77,985 -$209 2,680
Voya Financial Financials -$58,500 -$351 6,000
Wayfair Retailing -$57,992 -$985 16,985
Occidental Petroleum Energy -$46,319 -$667 14,400
Apache Energy -$1,123,301 -$3,553 3,163

COVID-19 has also had an intense effect on some of the companies at the bottom end of the profit per employee spectrum. Chesapeake Energy and Frontier Communications are just two examples that have filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in recent months—they each lost $134K and $322K per employee in 2019 respectively.

I’m pretty confident we will see more bankruptcies than in any business person’s lifetime.

James Hammond, CEO of BankruptcyData

Profit per Employee by Sector

When all the companies in the Fortune 500 are taken into account, sector-specific numbers reveal interesting trends.

Financials bring in the most profit per employee at $116K, while Food and Drug Stores see 17 times less profit at $6.7K per employee. In fact, eight out of the top 20 most profitable companies are found in the financial sector.

Sector Profits per Employee Profits ($M) Employees
Financials $116,228 $378,445 3,256,067
Technology $87,532 $252,836 2,888,490
Energy $85,547 $75,410 881,505
Media $57,947 $21,634 373,333
Health Care $54,679 $145,166 2,654,872
Telecommunications $50,636 $38,251 755,417
F&B incl. Tobacco $41,946 $42,924 1,023,317
Business Services $39,354 $36,835 936,000
Chemicals $27,977 $11,328 404,888
Apparel $26,154 $7,776 297,300
Industrials $25,827 $27,006 1,045,675
Aerospace & Defence $24,793 $23,903 964,100
Household Products $24,504 $10,415 425,038
Transportation $21,762 $32,454 1,491,358
Engineering & Construction $19,648 $6,773 344,716
Materials $13,408 $6,024 449,252
Retailing $10,373 $67,318 6,489,923
Hotels, Restaurants & Leisure $9,653 $16,880 1,748,714
Wholesalers $9,025 $5,842 647,312
Motor Vehicles & Parts $8,113 $7,108 876,123
Food & Drug Stores $6,746 $8,355 1,238,645

Interestingly, as a whole, the energy sector comes in third place in terms of profit per employee at $86K—that said, nine out of the bottom 20 least profitable companies are also found in this highly volatile industry.

Though the vast majority of businesses impacted by COVID-19 have been small to mid-sized companies, the above calculations also show that Fortune 500 companies are not safe, either.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The 20 Most and Least Profitable Companies, Per Employee appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Football Fever: Investing in the Beautiful Game


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Football Fever Investing Infographic

Football Fever: Investing in the Beautiful Game

The very mention of football conjures up images of cheering fans from all corners of the world.

The global appeal of the game is undeniable, and it’s the strong support of fans that has propelled its growth into a multi-billion dollar industry.

Today’s infographic from Swissquote tracks how the sport has reached far and wide—even onto the stock exchange.

The Timeline of the Manchester United IPO

Manchester United is the largest publicly-traded football club in the world. The journey of its initial public offering (IPO) can be traced back almost 30 years.

  • 1991: Man United floats on the London Stock Exchange (LSE)
    It aims to raise £10 million, but falls short and finally raises £6.7 million.
  • 2003-2005: Malcolm Glazer acquires ownership of Man United
    This raises the club’s market capitalization to £790 million, and it delists from the LSE.
  • 2012: Man United lists on the New York Stock Exchange
    It aims to raise £62.8 million in this IPO, but surpasses this with a final raised value of £146.3 million. Interestingly, George Soros was the biggest investor in this deal, buying a nearly 2% stake in the club.

What makes a football team like Manchester United so attractive in the eyes of investors?

Over decades, a flourishing fan base from viewers to consumers has been the force behind the football industry’s success as a whole.

The Big Business of Football

FIFA, the international governing body of football, organizes and promotes all major tournaments. Its total revenue between 2015-2018 can be broken down into a few main components:

Revenue Source Amount % of total
Broadcasting rights €2,800 million 48%
Marketing rights €1,500 million 27%
Accommodation and ticket sales €600 million 11%
Licensing rights €500 million 9%
Other revenue €300 million 5%
Total: €5,800 million

In fact, 83% of this total revenue came from the 2018 Russia World Cup alone. This was viewed by approximately 3.6 billion people—nearly half the world’s population.

The World Cup’s revenue even rivals the combined strength of the top five European clubs. How do the five major clubs make their money?

Club Matchday Broadcast Commercial/ Sponsorships 2019 Revenue
FC Barcelona €159M €298M €384M €841M
Real Madrid €145M €258M €355M €757M
Man Utd €121M €274M €317M €712M
Bayern Munich €92M €211M €357M €660M
Paris Saint-German €116M €157M €363M €636M
Total €633M €1.2B €1.8B €3.6B

As viewership climbs, broadcasting rights furiously grow too—presenting numerous investment opportunities in sponsorship on the pitch and on the screen.

Cashing in on Clubs

Manchester United (NYSE:MANU) set a new precedent for publicly-traded football clubs—with a market cap worth near €1.8 billion today.

Following Man United’s example, other major clubs have since gone public across Europe. As well, Asia presents an emerging opportunity as the sport’s regional popularity expands.

Club Stock Ticker Mkt Cap (Jul 31, 2020)
🇮🇹 Juventus FC S.p.A JUVE:IM €1.19B
🇩🇪 Borussia Dortmund BVB:GR €511M
🇮🇹 AS Roma ASR:IM €320M
🇬🇧 Celtic F.C. CCP:LN €108M (£97M)
🇨🇳 Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao NEEQ:834338 N/A
🇮🇩 Bali United IDX:BOLA €57M (Rp894B)

China’s most valuable football club—backed in part by e-commerce giant Alibaba—closely matches the valuation of Manchester United.

In Southeast Asia, Bali United was the first team to go public in June 2019. Shares jumped 69% higher than the initial listing price upon its IPO. This move is already propelling more planned IPOs for more football teams in the region, such as Persija Jakarta—the 2018 Liga 1 champion—and Thailand’s Buriram United.

The Future of Football

Football has the power to stir passions and unite people—and it’s reinventing itself constantly.

The 2019 Women’s World Cup was the most watched in tournament history, with over 1.12 billion tuning in. FIFA plans to invest almost €454 million more into the women’s game between 2019-2022, and grow the number of female players to 600 million by 2026.

Additionally, the annual esports tournament eWorld Cup is taking place in Thailand in 2020—tapping into the esports boom in Asia, which hosts 57% of esports enthusiasts.

Any football fan will tell you that the beautiful game is more than just a sport. And for investors, there are a variety of ways to gain exposure to this market—meaning fans can be both personally and financially invested as it continues to grow.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Football Fever: Investing in the Beautiful Game appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

How Much Do Countries Spend on Healthcare Compared to the Military?


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Country Health versus Miitary Spending

Healthcare vs. Military Spending, by Country

Keeping citizens both healthy and secure are key priorities for many national governments around the world—but ultimately, decisions must be made on how tax dollars are spent to accomplish these objectives, and funding must fall into one bucket or another.

This infographic from PixlParade examines how much 46 different countries put towards healthcare and military spending in 2018, per capita.

Head to Head: Healthcare versus Military

Data for government and compulsory healthcare spending comes from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Note that these figures do not include spending through private insurance or out-of-pocket expenses.

Meanwhile, the data for military spending comes from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

Country Health spending (Per capita, 2018 US$) Military spending (Per capita, 2018 US$)
U.S. $9,008.77 $2,086.50
Norway $5,361.00 $1,323.90
Germany $5,262.83 $559.50
Switzerland $4,687.26 $546.00
Sweden $4,623.68 $574.90
Netherlands $4,461.30 $651.50
Denmark $4,441.07 $792.50
Luxembourg $4,385.66 $650.80
France $4,310.55 $791.00
Austria $4,137.25 $381.00
Belgium $3,868.82 $421.60
Japan $3,787.74 $366.50
Canada $3,719.86 $613.10
Ireland $3,629.43 $229.80
UK $3,336.55 $743.10
Finland $3,331.65 $680.30
Australia $3,311.33 $1,078.00
NZ $3,188.39 $532.30
Czhechia $2,632.67 $254.10
Italy $2,574.96 $458.70
Malta $2,448.73 $152.20
Spain $2,414.69 $381.70
Slovenia $2,227.77 $254.80
Portugal $1,906.23 $431.00
South Korea $1,848.76 $841.70
Israel $1,828.40 $2,357.50
Estonia $1,744.57 $458.60
Lithuania $1,599.15 $377.10
Croatia $1,553.67 $232.50
Poland $1,511.18 $317.50
Hungary $1,493.01 $184.60
Romania $1,344.34 $223.50
Greece $1,331.19 $547.10
Chile $1,282.59 $296.10
Latvia $1,111.67 $375.20
Cyprus $1,103.03 $374.30
Bulgaria $1,042.85 $136.30
Turkey $946.83 $238.60
Russia $873.00 $421.20
Colombia $864.16 $204.10
Mexico $582.05 $46.30
Brazil $388.98 $134.50
South Africa $267.85 $63.50
China $249.83 $177.60
Indonesia $55.62 $28.20
India $18.80 $49.00
Source: OECD Source: SIPRI

Note: There are minor discrepancies in comparing table data to original sources due to recent estimate updates. Figures for Brazil, South Africa, China, Indonesia, and India come from the World Bank (2017).

The Top 10 Healthcare Spenders

The U.S. leads the world in government healthcare spending at $9,008 per capita – over 1.5 times that of Norway, the next-highest country examined.

Country Per capita health spending % of GDP % of health spending
U.S. $9,008.77 14.3% 84.7%
Norway $5,361.00 8.6% 85.3%
Germany $5,262.83 9.7% 84.6%
Switzerland $4,687.26 7.6% 64.4%
Sweden $4,623.68 9.3% 85.1%
Netherlands $4,461.30 8.2% 82.1%
Denmark $4,441.07 8.5% 83.9%
Luxembourg $4,385.66 4.4% 84.1%
France $4,310.55 9.4% 83.6%
Austria $4,137.25 7.7% 74.7%

While per-capita government spending on healthcare in the U.S. is the highest in the world, this has not necessarily brought about better outcomes (such as longer life expectancy) compared to other developed nations.

It’s also worth mentioning that the above figures do not cover all healthcare costs incurred by citizens, as they do not account for private insurance spending or out-of-pocket expenses. According to OECD data, these additional costs tend to be the highest in places like Switzerland and the United States.

The Top 10 Military Spenders

Israel has the highest rate of military spending per capita, and has the distinction of being the only country on this list to invest more in defense than in healthcare.

Country Per capita military spending % of GDP Total expenditure, US$M
Israel $2,357.50 5.3% $19,759M
U.S. $2,086.50 3.3% $682,491M
Norway $1,323.90 1.6% $7,067M
Australia $1,078.00 1.9% $26,840M
South Korea $841.70 2.5% $43,070M
Denmark $792.50 1.3% $4,559M
France $791.00 1.3% $51,410M
UK $743.10 1.8% $49,892M
Finland $680.30 1.4% $3,757M
Netherlands $651.50 1.2% $11,115M

Although the United States comes in second place here as well, in absolute terms, the U.S. puts more money into military expenditures than many other countries combined, at almost $700 billion per year.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post How Much Do Countries Spend on Healthcare Compared to the Military? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The Spiraling Opioid Epidemic in America


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

US Opioid Epidemic Spiral in America

The Spiraling Opioid Epidemic in America

Over the last 20 years, the ongoing U.S. opioid crisis has claimed tens of thousands of lives. In fact, opioid overdose deaths accounted for nearly 70% of all drug overdose deaths in 2018.

Although the damage of the opioid epidemic is well documented, what people might not know is that it has escalated in three distinct waves.

We pull the latest statistics from the UN World Drug Report 2020 to uncover the scope of the opioid crisis in the U.S., and how national drug-related death rates compare to other countries.

Three Waves of the Opioid Crisis

According to the CDC, the opioid epidemic can be traced back to the 1990s, when opioids started being over-prescribed for pain relief purposes.

  • 1990s – Wave 1
    Over-prescription of opioids for pain relief, including natural opioids, semi-synthetic opioids, and methadone. Addiction risks were widely downplayed.
  • 2010 – Wave 2
    Heroin-related overdose deaths on the rise.
  • 2013 – Wave 3
    Synthetic opioid-related deaths on the rise, particularly fentanyl and tramadol.

Here’s how that breaks down in terms of opioid-related overdose deaths over the years. Note that by the year 2018, 67% of overdose deaths involved synthetic opioids such as fentanyl.

Year Any opioids Heroin Pharmaceutical opioids Synthetic opioids
1999 8,050 1,960 3,533 730
2000 8,407 1,842 3,903 782
2001 9,496 1,779 4,935 957
2002 11,920 2,089 6,774 1,295
2003 12,940 2,080 7,839 1,400
2004 13,756 1,878 9,076 1,664
2005 14,918 2,009 10,234 1,742
2006 17,545 2,088 12,423 2,707
2007 18,516 2,399 13,676 2,213
2008 19,582 3,041 14,043 2,306
2009 20,422 3,278 14,431 2,946
2010 21,089 3,036 15,520 3,007
2011 22,784 4,397 16,111 2,666
2012 23,166 5,925 15,072 2,628
2013 25,052 8,257 13,937 3,105
2014 28,647 10,574 15,559 5,544
2015 33,091 12,989 16,028 9,580
2016 42,249 15,469 17,860 19,413
2017 47,600 15,482 17,689 28,466
2018 46,802 14,996 15,575 31,335

Overdose deaths from synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and tramadol shot up by over 4,000% between 1999-2018. This can be attributed to two things: their relative potency, and the minute quantities of each that qualify as a lethal dose.

As per the medical and legal standard, opioids are often compared to morphine. To that end, heroin is 2-5x stronger—while fentanyl is 50-100x more potent. Put another way, roughly a dime-size or 10-12mg of heroin is considered a lethal dose, compared to only 1-2mg of fentanyl.

What’s worse, fentanyl is typically mixed with other types of drugs such as heroin or cocaine to increase their effects, which is how it ends up unintentionally ingested. Between 2008-2017, drug-use disorders as a whole claimed the most healthy lives due to poor health or early deaths—measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)—followed in close second by opioid use disorders.

The Death Toll of U.S. Drug Overdoses

It’s undeniable that the opioid epidemic in America has caused significant harm to communities. But how does the U.S. drug crisis compare to the same issue in other countries?

The UN Drug Report further puts these numbers into perspective by comparing drug-related deaths per million population. Note that the source also compiled the total deaths across years for selected countries.

Country (Latest Year) Latest Years of Estimate Total Deaths Rate per 1M (Aged 15-64)
🇺🇸 U.S. 2018 67,367 314.5
🇦🇺 Australia 2016-2017 3,240 202.6
🇸🇻 El Salvador 2018 765 184.5
🇨🇦 Canada 2018 4,460 179.8
🇺🇾 Uruguay 2016 264 119.4
🇮🇸 Iceland 2012-2016 23 105.2
🇸🇪 Sweden 2017 575 92.9
🇳🇿 New Zealand 2016 269 88.6
🇫🇮 Finland 2017 289 83.9
🇬🇧 UK 2017 3,547 83

With 314.5 deaths per million, the U.S. by far had the highest proportion of drug-related deaths per million people in 2018. It also had the highest overall number at 67.4K deaths.

Elephant in the Room?

Another drug rearing its head on the streets is carfentanil. Formerly developed as ‘elephant tranquilizer’, this synthetic opioid is similar in appearance to other illicit drugs such as heroin, making it indistinguishable when mixed in. However, there’s one big problem—carfentanil is 100x more potent than fentanyl itself.

In response to the continued crisis, an additional $35.7 billion was requested for counter-drug funding efforts in the FY2021 Budget. This amount is expected to go towards prevention and treatment efforts ($18.6 billion) and law enforcement efforts ($17.1 billion) both domestically and internationally.

But will these efforts properly combat the crisis, or are we already in the midst of a fourth wave of the opioid epidemic?

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The Spiraling Opioid Epidemic in America appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

When Will Life Return to Normal?


This post is curated by Keith Teare. It was written by Iman Ghosh. The original is [linked here]

COVID19 When Will Life Return To Normal According to Experts

When Will Life Return to Normal?

From battles on the front lines to social distancing from friends and family, COVID-19 has caused a massive shake-up of our daily lives.

After second-guessing everything from hugging our loved ones to delaying travel, there is one big question that everyone is likely thinking about: will we ever get back to the status quo? The answer may not be very clear-cut.

Today’s graphic uses data from New York Times’ interviews of 511 epidemiologists and infectious disease specialists from the U.S. and Canada, and visualizes their opinions on when they might expect to resume a range of typical activities.

Life in the Near Future, According to Experts

Specifically, this group of epidemiologists were asked when they might personally begin engaging in 20 common daily activities again.

The responses, based on the latest publicly available and scientifically-backed data, varied based on assumptions around local pandemic response plans. The experts also noted that their answers would change depending on potential treatments and testing rates in their local areas.

Here are the activities that a majority of professionals see starting up as soon as this summer, or within a year’s time:

  This summer 3-12 months +1 year Never again
📬 Bring in mail without precautions 64% 16% 17% 3%
👩‍⚕️ See a doctor for a non-urgent appointment 60% 29% 11% <1%
🚗 Vacation overnight within driving distance 56% 26% 18% <1%
💇‍♂️ Get a haircut at a salon or barber shop 41% 39% 19% 1%
🥳 Attend a small dinner party 32% 46% 21% <1%
🥾 Hike or picnic outdoors with friends 31% 41% 27% <1%
🎒 Send kids to school, camp, or day care 30% 55% 15% <1%
🏢 Work in a shared office 27% 54% 18% 1%
👶 Send children on play dates 23% 47% 29% 1%
🚌 Ride a subway or a bus 20% 40% 39% 1%
👴 Visit elderly relative or friend in their home 20% 41% 39% <1%
✈ Travel by airplane 20% 44% 37% <1%
🍽 Eat at a dine-in restaurant 16% 56% 28% <1%
🏋 Exercise at a gym or fitness studio 14% 42% 40% 4%

The urge to be outdoors is pretty clear, with 56% of those surveyed hoping to take a road trip before the summer is over. Meanwhile, 31% felt that they would be able to go hiking or have a picnic with friends this summer, citing the need for “fresh air, sun, socialization and a healthy activity” to help keep on top of their physical and mental health during this time.

Public transport and travel of any form is one aspect that has been put on hold, whether it’s by plane, train, or automobile. Many of the surveyed epidemiologists also lamented the strain the pandemic has had on relationships, as evidenced by the social situations they hope to restart sooner rather than later.

The worst casualty of the epidemic is the loss of human contact.

—Eduardo Franco, McGill University

On the other hand, there are certain activities that they considered too risky to engage in for the time-being. A large share are putting off attending celebrations such as weddings or concerts for at least a year or more, out of perceived social responsibility.

  This summer 3-12 months +1 year Never again
👰⚰ Attend a wedding or a funeral 17% 41% 42% <1%
🤗🤝 Hug or shake hands when greeting a friend 14% 39% 42% 6%
💞 Go out with someone you don’t know well 14% 42% 42% 2%
🛐 Attend a church or other religious service 13% 43% 43% 2%
😷 Stop routinely wearing a face covering 7% 40% 52% 1%
🎫 Attend a sporting event, concert, or play 3% 32% 64% 1%

Perhaps the most surprising finding is that 6% of epidemiologists do not expect to ever hug or shake hands as a post-pandemic greeting. On top of this, over half consider masks necessary for at least the next year.

The Virus Sets the Timeline

Of course, these estimates are not meant to represent every situation. The experts also practically considered whether certain activities were avoidable or not—such as one’s occupation—which affects individual risk levels.

The answers [about resuming these activities] have nothing to do with calendar time.

—Kristi McClamroch, University at Albany

While many places are trickling out of lockdown and re-opening to support the economy, some officials are still warning against prematurely lifting restrictions before we fully have a handle on the virus and its spread.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post When Will Life Return to Normal? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

When Will Life Return to Normal?


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

COVID19 When Will Life Return To Normal According to Experts

When Will Life Return to Normal?

From battles on the front lines to social distancing from friends and family, COVID-19 has caused a massive shake-up of our daily lives.

After second-guessing everything from hugging our loved ones to delaying travel, there is one big question that everyone is likely thinking about: will we ever get back to the status quo? The answer may not be very clear-cut.

Today’s graphic uses data from New York Times’ interviews of 511 epidemiologists and infectious disease specialists from the U.S. and Canada, and visualizes their opinions on when they might expect to resume a range of typical activities.

Life in the Near Future, According to Experts

Specifically, this group of epidemiologists were asked when they might personally begin engaging in 20 common daily activities again.

The responses, based on the latest publicly available and scientifically-backed data, varied based on assumptions around local pandemic response plans. The experts also noted that their answers would change depending on potential treatments and testing rates in their local areas.

Here are the activities that a majority of professionals see starting up as soon as this summer, or within a year’s time:

  This summer 3-12 months +1 year Never again
📬 Bring in mail without precautions 64% 16% 17% 3%
👩‍⚕️ See a doctor for a non-urgent appointment 60% 29% 11% <1%
🚗 Vacation overnight within driving distance 56% 26% 18% <1%
💇‍♂️ Get a haircut at a salon or barber shop 41% 39% 19% 1%
🥳 Attend a small dinner party 32% 46% 21% <1%
🥾 Hike or picnic outdoors with friends 31% 41% 27% <1%
🎒 Send kids to school, camp, or day care 30% 55% 15% <1%
🏢 Work in a shared office 27% 54% 18% 1%
👶 Send children on play dates 23% 47% 29% 1%
🚌 Ride a subway or a bus 20% 40% 39% 1%
👴 Visit elderly relative or friend in their home 20% 41% 39% <1%
✈ Travel by airplane 20% 44% 37% <1%
🍽 Eat at a dine-in restaurant 16% 56% 28% <1%
🏋 Exercise at a gym or fitness studio 14% 42% 40% 4%

The urge to be outdoors is pretty clear, with 56% of those surveyed hoping to take a road trip before the summer is over. Meanwhile, 31% felt that they would be able to go hiking or have a picnic with friends this summer, citing the need for “fresh air, sun, socialization and a healthy activity” to help keep on top of their physical and mental health during this time.

Public transport and travel of any form is one aspect that has been put on hold, whether it’s by plane, train, or automobile. Many of the surveyed epidemiologists also lamented the strain the pandemic has had on relationships, as evidenced by the social situations they hope to restart sooner rather than later.

The worst casualty of the epidemic is the loss of human contact.

—Eduardo Franco, McGill University

On the other hand, there are certain activities that they considered too risky to engage in for the time-being. A large share are putting off attending celebrations such as weddings or concerts for at least a year or more, out of perceived social responsibility.

  This summer 3-12 months +1 year Never again
👰⚰ Attend a wedding or a funeral 17% 41% 42% <1%
🤗🤝 Hug or shake hands when greeting a friend 14% 39% 42% 6%
💞 Go out with someone you don’t know well 14% 42% 42% 2%
🛐 Attend a church or other religious service 13% 43% 43% 2%
😷 Stop routinely wearing a face covering 7% 40% 52% 1%
🎫 Attend a sporting event, concert, or play 3% 32% 64% 1%

Perhaps the most surprising finding is that 6% of epidemiologists do not expect to ever hug or shake hands as a post-pandemic greeting. On top of this, over half consider masks necessary for at least the next year.

The Virus Sets the Timeline

Of course, these estimates are not meant to represent every situation. The experts also practically considered whether certain activities were avoidable or not—such as one’s occupation—which affects individual risk levels.

The answers [about resuming these activities] have nothing to do with calendar time.

—Kristi McClamroch, University at Albany

While many places are trickling out of lockdown and re-opening to support the economy, some officials are still warning against prematurely lifting restrictions before we fully have a handle on the virus and its spread.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post When Will Life Return to Normal? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

5G Revolution: Unlocking the Digital Age


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

5G Revolution Unlocking the Digital Age

5G Revolution: Unlocking the Digital Age

Imagine if you were to jump straight from using a typewriter one day, to typing on a laptop the next. The speed and ease at which it would improve your tasks is undeniable.

With 5G, we’re on the cusp of a similar transition in the global communications system. Total connectivity could soon be at our fingertips.

Today’s infographic breaks down the potential that 5G promises, and the immense opportunities stemming from its implications for smart tech and the Internet of Things (IoT).

A Timeline of Wireless Generations

The world’s appetite for wireless speed has been insatiable. We’ve powered through five generations of wireless connectivity in just 40 years.

  • 1982-1990s: Analog 1G
    1G only supported voice calls, and little else.
    Data bandwidth: 1.9 kbps
  • 1990s: Digital 2G
    2G supported text, picture, and multimedia messaging (SMS, MMS).
    Data bandwidth: 14.4 kbps – 384 kbps
  • 2000s: 3G Smartphone Era
    The first 3G networks go online, supporting high-quality audio and video, and international roaming.
    Data bandwidth: 2 Mbps
  • 2010: 4G Streaming Era
    4G and LTE supported HD video streaming, and is deployed in Europe, and later in the U.S.
    Data bandwidth: 2 Mbps – 1 Gbps
  • 2019-Present: Full Speed Ahead to 5G?
    South Korea first launches 5G across the country, followed by 50 cities in China. The U.S., UK, and Germany also roll out 5G on a limited basis.
    Data bandwidth: 1 Gbps – >10 Gbps
  • *k/M/Gbps: kilobytes/ megabytes/ gigabytes per second.

The global 5G market is projected to reach $668 billion at a 122% compound annual growth rate (2020-2026), with nearly half this growth coming from Asia-Pacific.

4G versus 5G: What’s the Difference?

5G is on the verge of taking off. What sets it apart from its predecessor?

For starters, 5G’s speed improvements are something to behold—it is up to 20x faster than 4G. On 4G, an average movie takes 6 minutes to download. With 5G, it will take less than 20 seconds.

  4G 5G
Faster downloads
Peak data date
125 megabytes/second 2,500 Mbs
Increased connectivity
Devices supported per km²
100,000 devices/km² 1,000,000 devices/km²
Lower Latency
Delay/ lag time
50 milliseconds  <2 ms

In other benefits, 5G supports 10x more devices per square kilometer. As a result, 5G will be able to seamlessly handle many more devices, within the same area as before. This is pivotal for its use in the imminent Internet of Things (IoT).

Finally, latency is the delay (lag), or the time that it takes to send data from point A to point B. With 5G, latency plunges 25x compared to 4G. This results in almost instantaneous data transfers.

5G will go from promise to roll-out in 2020.

Morgan Stanley

Beyond the Smartphone

5G is one of the most anticipated technologies of our time, and with good reason. In the coming years, the partnership between 5G and the IoT could bring about a boom in smart tech, and this effect could trickle into growth for the economy and investor portfolios.

The 5G network is the perfect backbone for the IoT—supporting increasing device numbers, facilitating growing data transfers, and improving response time among connected devices.

According to McKinsey, 5G will likely speed up the mainstream adoption of the IoT across multiple industries:

1. Transport

5G enables self-driving cars to make “split second” decisions, making them safer. These cars can also connect to buildings, street lights, other cars, and even pedestrians in smart cities—responding rapidly to any issues and improving traffic flow.

These two use cases are estimated to bring a $170-$280 billion global GDP boost to the mobility sector by 2030.

2. Manufacturing

5G could usher in high-tech industry, using AR/VR to boost productivity and precision. Analytics and advanced robotics in smart factories can streamline manufacturing processes, leading to efficiency gains and cost savings. Altogether, the impact could be a $400-$650 billion GDP boost to the industry by 2030.

3. Healthcare

While robotic surgeries are not new, 5G could allow these procedures to occur remotely.

Wearables and other smart medical devices provide real-time updates on patients, and make accurate diagnoses. These two applications will contribute an additional $250-$450 billion in GDP to the healthcare space by 2030.

A New Wireless Era

5G is only scratching the surface of its full potential, though a few caveats remain before it can scale successfully. A whole new lineup of infrastructure will be needed to support this latest wireless generation, including enabled devices, network density and access, and getting telecoms operators and carriers on board.

The complete uptake of 5G will take a few years to realize. But as the technological shift continues to unfold, investors can take advantage of the wave of opportunities it presents.

5G is more than an upgrade—it’s a crucial transformation of major segments of the economy.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post 5G Revolution: Unlocking the Digital Age appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Visualizing the Human Impact on the Ocean Economy


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Human Impact and the Ocean Economy

Visualizing the Human Impact on our Ocean Economy

When you think of economic output, it’s likely the ocean isn’t the first entity that comes to mind. But from facilitating international trade to regulating the climate, the “blue economy” contributes significant value in both tangible and intangible ways.

The sustainable use of the ocean and its resources for economic development and livelihoods have such far-reaching effects, that its protection is a significant goal of the United Nations, as well as for many other countries and organizations throughout the world.

However, these vital ocean assets are in danger of sinking quickly. Ahead of World Oceans Day on June 8, 2020, we look at the total value of assets that come from our ocean, and how various human activities are affecting these resources.

Global Ocean Asset Value

Economic value from all the oceans is measured both by their direct output, as well as any indirect impacts they produce.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, these combined assets are valued at over $24 trillion. Here’s how they break down:

  • Direct Output: Marine fisheries, coral reefs, seagrass, and mangroves
    Total value: $6.9T
    Examples of direct output: Fishing, agriculture
  • Trade and Transport: Shipping lanes
    Total value: $5.2T
  • Adjacent Assets: Productive coastline, carbon absorption
    Total value: $7.8T, and $4.3T respectively
    Examples of services enabled: Tourism, education/conservation (such as jobs created)

In fact, the annual gross marine product of the oceans is comparable to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of countries, coming in at $2.5 trillion per year—making it the world’s eighth largest economy in country terms.

Unfortunately, experts warn that various human activities are endangering these ocean assets and their reliant ecosystems.

The Cumulative Human Impact on Oceans

An 11-year long scientific study tracked the global effect of multiple human activities across diverse marine environments. The researchers identified four main categories of stressors between 2003-2013.

  1. Climate change: Sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and sea level rise
  2. Ocean: Shipping
  3. Land-based: Nutrient pollution, organic chemical pollution, direct human pollution, light pollution
  4. Fishing: Commercial and artisanal fishing, including trawling methods

Across the board, climate stressors were the most dominant drivers of change in a majority of marine environments. Similarly, pollution levels have also increased for many ecosystems.

Plastic pollution is especially damaging, as it continues to grow at unprecedented rates, with a significant amount ending up in the oceans. The World Economic Forum estimates that by 2050, there could be more plastic in the ocean than fish by weight.

Among the various marine environments, coral reefs, seagrasses, and mangroves proved to be most at-risk, experiencing the fastest increase in cumulative human impact. However, these are also the same ecosystems that we rely on for their direct economic output.

Overall, climate-induced declines in ocean health could cost the global economy $428 billion annually by 2050.

The Ocean Economy is in Hot Water

It can be difficult to truly understand the scale at which we rely on the ocean for climate regulation. The ocean is a major “carbon sink”, absorbing nearly 30% of the carbon emitted by human activity. But acidity levels and rising sea surface temperatures are changing its chemistry, and reducing its ability to dissolve CO₂.

According to the UN, ocean acidification has grown by 26% since pre-industrial times. At our current rates, it could rise to 100-150% by the end of the century. Overfishing is another urgent threat that shows no signs of slowing down, with sustainable fish stocks declining from 90% to 66.9% in just over 40 years.

To try and counteract these issues, this year’s virtual World Oceans Day is focused on “Innovation for a Sustainable Oceans” to discuss various solutions, including how the private sector can work with communities to maintain the blue economy. In addition, there’s a petition in place to urge world leaders to help protect 30% of the natural world by 2030.

Will our human activities continue to stress the ocean economy, or will we be able to positively reverse these trends in the years to come?

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Visualizing the Human Impact on the Ocean Economy appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

The Road to Recovery: Which Economies are Reopening?


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

Reopening Economies

The Road to Recovery: Which Economies are Reopening?

COVID-19 has brought the world to a halt—but after months of uncertainty, it seems that the situation is slowly taking a turn for the better.

Today’s chart measures the extent to which 41 major economies are reopening, by plotting two metrics for each country: the mobility rate and the COVID-19 recovery rate:

  1. Mobility Index
    This refers to the change in activity around workplaces, subtracting activity around residences, measured as a percentage deviation from the baseline.

  2. COVID-19 Recovery Rate
    The number of recovered cases in a country is measured as the percentage of total cases.

Data for the first measure comes from Google’s COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports, which relies on aggregated, anonymous location history data from individuals. Note that China does not show up in the graphic as the government bans Google services.

COVID-19 recovery rates rely on values from CoronaTracker, using aggregated information from multiple global and governmental databases such as WHO and CDC.

Reopening Economies, One Step at a Time

In general, the higher the mobility rate, the more economic activity this signifies. In most cases, mobility rate also correlates with a higher rate of recovered people in the population.

Here’s how these countries fare based on the above metrics.

Country Mobility Rate Recovery Rate Total Cases Total Recovered
Argentina -56% 33.14% 13,933 4,617
Australia -41% 92.03% 7,150 6,580
Austria -100% 91.93% 16,628 15,286
Belgium -105% 26.92% 57,849 15,572
Brazil -48% 39.81% 418,608 166,647
Canada -67% 52.86% 88,473 46,768
Chile -110% 41.58% 86,943 36,150
Colombia -73% 25.35% 24,104 6,111
Czechia -29% 70.69% 9,134 6,457
Denmark -93% 88.43% 11,512 10,180
Finland -93% 81.57% 6,743 5,500
France -100% 36.08% 186,238 67,191
Germany -99% 89.48% 182,385 163,200
Greece -32% 47.28% 2,906 1,374
Hong Kong -10% 97.00% 1,067 1,035
Hungary -49% 52.31% 3,816 1,996
India -65% 42.88% 165,386 70,920
Indonesia -77% 25.43% 24,538 6,240
Ireland -79% 88.92% 24,841 22,089
Israel -31% 87.00% 16,872 14,679
Italy -52% 64.99% 231,732 150,604
Japan -33% 83.92% 16,651 13,973
Malaysia -53% 80.86% 7,629 6,169
Mexico -69% 69.70% 78,023 54,383
Netherlands -97% 0.01% 45,950 3
New Zealand -21% 98.01% 1,504 1,474
Norway -100% 91.92% 8,406 7,727
Philippines -87% 23.08% 15,588 3,598
Poland -36% 46.27% 22,825 10,560
Portugal -65% 58.99% 31,596 18,637
Singapore -105% 55.02% 33,249 18,294
South Africa -74% 51.86% 25,937 13,451
South Korea -4% 91.15% 11,344 10,340
Spain -67% 69.11% 284,986 196,958
Sweden -93% 13.91% 35,727 4,971
Switzerland -101% 91.90% 30,796 28,300
Taiwan 4% 95.24% 441 420
Thailand -36% 96.08% 3,065 2,945
U.S. -56% 28.13% 1,758,909 494,724
United Kingdom -82% 0.05% 269,127 135
Vietnam 15% 85.02% 327 278

Mobility data as of May 21, 2020 (Latest available). COVID-19 case data as of May 28, 2020.

In the main scatterplot visualization, we’ve taken things a step further, assigning these countries into four distinct quadrants:

1. High Mobility, High Recovery

High recovery rates are resulting in lifted restrictions for countries in this quadrant, and people are steadily returning to work.

New Zealand has earned praise for its early and effective pandemic response, allowing it to curtail the total number of cases. This has resulted in a 98% recovery rate, the highest of all countries. After almost 50 days of lockdown, the government is recommending a flexible four-day work week to boost the economy back up.

2. High Mobility, Low Recovery

Despite low COVID-19 related recoveries, mobility rates of countries in this quadrant remain higher than average. Some countries have loosened lockdown measures, while others did not have strict measures in place to begin with.

Brazil is an interesting case study to consider here. After deferring lockdown decisions to state and local levels, the country is now averaging the highest number of daily cases out of any country. On May 28th, for example, the country had 24,151 new cases and 1,067 new deaths.

3. Low Mobility, High Recovery

Countries in this quadrant are playing it safe, and holding off on reopening their economies until the population has fully recovered.

Italy, the once-epicenter for the crisis in Europe is understandably wary of cases rising back up to critical levels. As a result, it has opted to keep its activity to a minimum to try and boost the 65% recovery rate, even as it slowly emerges from over 10 weeks of lockdown.

4. Low Mobility, Low Recovery

Last but not least, people in these countries are cautiously remaining indoors as their governments continue to work on crisis response.

With a low 0.05% recovery rate, the United Kingdom has no immediate plans to reopen. A two-week lag time in reporting discharged patients from NHS services may also be contributing to this low number. Although new cases are leveling off, the country has the highest coronavirus-caused death toll across Europe.

The U.S. also sits in this quadrant with over 1.7 million cases and counting. Recently, some states have opted to ease restrictions on social and business activity, which could potentially result in case numbers climbing back up.

Over in Sweden, a controversial herd immunity strategy meant that the country continued business as usual amid the rest of Europe’s heightened regulations. Sweden’s COVID-19 recovery rate sits at only 13.9%, and the country’s -93% mobility rate implies that people have been taking their own precautions.

COVID-19’s Impact on the Future

It’s important to note that a “second wave” of new cases could upend plans to reopen economies. As countries reckon with these competing risks of health and economic activity, there is no clear answer around the right path to take.

COVID-19 is a catalyst for an entirely different future, but interestingly, it’s one that has been in the works for a while.

Without being melodramatic, COVID-19 is like the last nail in the coffin of globalization…The 2008-2009 crisis gave globalization a big hit, as did Brexit, as did the U.S.-China trade war, but COVID is taking it to a new level.

Carmen Reinhart, incoming Chief Economist for the World Bank

Will there be any chance of returning to “normal” as we know it?

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post The Road to Recovery: Which Economies are Reopening? appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

Mapped: The State of Facial Recognition Around the World


This post is by Iman Ghosh from Visual Capitalist

View the full-size version of this infographic.

Facial Recognition World Map-1200px

Mapping The State of Facial Recognition Around the World

View the high resolution version of this infographic by clicking here.

From public CCTV cameras to biometric identification systems in airports, facial recognition technology is now common in a growing number of places around the world.

In its most benign form, facial recognition technology is a convenient way to unlock your smartphone. At the state level though, facial recognition is a key component of mass surveillance, and it already touches half the global population on a regular basis.

Today’s visualizations from SurfShark classify 194 countries and regions based on the extent of surveillance.

Facial Recognition Status Total Countries
In Use 98
Approved, but not implemented 12
Considering technology 13
No evidence of use 68
Banned 3

Click here to explore the full research methodology.

Let’s dive into the ways facial recognition technology is used across every region.

North America, Central America, and Caribbean

In the U.S., a 2016 study showed that already half of American adults were captured in some kind of facial recognition network. More recently, the Department of Homeland Security unveiled its “Biometric Exit” plan, which aims to use facial recognition technology on nearly all air travel passengers by 2023, to identify compliance with visa status.

Facial Recognition North America Map

Perhaps surprisingly, 59% of Americans are actually in favor of implementing facial recognition technology, considering it acceptable for use in law enforcement according to a Pew Research survey. Yet, some cities such as San Francisco have pushed to ban surveillance, citing a stand against its potential abuse by the government.

Facial recognition technology can potentially come in handy after a natural disaster. After Hurricane Dorian hit in late summer of 2019, the Bahamas launched a blockchain-based missing persons database “FindMeBahamas” to identify thousands of displaced people.

South America

The majority of facial recognition technology in South America is aimed at cracking down on crime. In fact, it worked in Brazil to capture Interpol’s second-most wanted criminal.

Facial Recognition South America Map

Home to over 209 million, Brazil soon plans to create a biometric database of its citizens. However, some are nervous that this could also serve as a means to prevent dissent against the current political order.

Europe

Belgium and Luxembourg are two of only three governments in the world to officially oppose the use of facial recognition technology.

Facial Recognition Europe Map

Further, 80% of Europeans are not keen on sharing facial data with authorities. Despite such negative sentiment, it’s still in use across 26 European countries to date.

The EU has been a haven for unlawful biometric experimentation and surveillance.

—European Digital Rights (EDRi)

In Russia, authorities have relied on facial recognition technology to check for breaches of quarantine rules by potential COVID-19 carriers. In Moscow alone, there are reportedly over 100,000 facial recognition enabled cameras in operation.

Middle East and Central Asia

Facial recognition technology is widespread in this region, notably for military purposes.

Facial Recognition Middle East and Central Asia Map

In Turkey, 30 domestically-developed kamikaze drones will use AI and facial recognition for border security. Similarly, Israel has a close eye on Palestinian citizens across 27 West Bank checkpoints.

In other parts of the region, police in the UAE have purchased discreet smart glasses that can be used to scan crowds, where positive matches show up on an embedded lens display. Over in Kazakhstan, facial recognition technology could replace public transportation passes entirely.

East Asia and Oceania

In the COVID-19 battle, contact tracing through biometric identification became a common tool to slow the infection rates in countries such as China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. In some instances, this included the use of facial recognition technology to monitor temperatures as well as spot those without a mask.

Facial Recognition East Asia Oceania Map

That said, questions remain about whether the pandemic panopticon will stop there.

China is often cited as a notorious use case of mass surveillance, and the country has the highest ratio of CCTV cameras to citizens in the world—one for every 12 people. By 2023, China will be the single biggest player in the global facial recognition market. And it’s not just implementing the technology at home–it’s exporting too.

Africa

While the African continent currently has the lowest concentration of facial recognition technology in use, this deficit may not last for long.

Facial Recognition World Map

Several African countries, such as Kenya and Uganda, have received telecommunications and surveillance financing and infrastructure from Chinese companies—Huawei in particular. While the company claims this has enabled regional crime rates to plummet, some activists are wary of the partnership.

Whether you approach facial recognition technology from public and national security lens or from an individual liberty perspective, it’s clear that this kind of surveillance is here to stay.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist


Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

The post Mapped: The State of Facial Recognition Around the World appeared first on Visual Capitalist.