Author: Dorothy Neufeld

Mapped: Global Energy Prices, by Country in 2022


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


How to use: Arrows on side navigate between each type of energy.

EnergyPricesElement_Gasoline

Mapped: Global Energy Prices, by Country in 2022

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

For some countries, energy prices hit historic levels in 2022.

Gasoline, electricity, and natural gas prices skyrocketed as Russia’s invasion of Ukraine ruptured global energy supply chains. Households and businesses are facing higher energy bills amid extreme price volatility. Uncertainty surrounding the war looms large, and winter heating costs are projected to soar.

Given the global consequences of the energy crisis, the above infographic shows the price of energy for households by country, with data from GlobalPetrolPrices.com.

1. Global Energy Prices: Gasoline

Which countries and regions pay the most for a gallon of gas?

RankCountry/ RegionGasoline Prices
(USD per Gallon)
1🇭🇰 Hong Kong$11.1
2🇨🇫 Central African Republic$8.6
3🇮🇸 Iceland$8.5
4🇳🇴 Norway$8.1
5🇧🇧 Barbados$7.8
6🇩🇰 Denmark$7.7
7🇬🇷 Greece$7.6
8🇫🇮 Finland$7.6
9🇳🇱 Netherlands$7.6
10🇧🇪 Belgium$7.4
11🇬🇧 United Kingdom$7.2
12🇪🇪 Estonia$7.2
13🇨🇭 Switzerland$7.2
14🇸🇬 Singapore$7.2
15🇸🇪 Sweden$7.1
16🇸🇨 Seychelles$7.1
17🇮🇱 Israel$7.0
18🇩🇪 Germany$7.0
19🇺🇾 Uruguay$7.0
20🇼🇫 Wallis and Futuna$7.0
21🇱🇮 Liechtenstein$6.9
22🇮🇪 Ireland$6.8
23🇵🇹 Portugal$6.8
24🇱🇻 Latvia$6.7
25🇧🇿 Belize$6.7
26🇦🇱 Albania$6.6
27🇦🇹 Austria$6.6
28🇲🇨 Monaco$6.6
29🇪🇸 Spain$6.5
30🇨🇿 Czech Republic$6.5
31🇲🇼 Malawi$6.5
(Read more...)

The Benefits of Reducing Methane Emissions


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


The following content is sponsored by Carbon Streaming Corporation.

The Briefing

  • Almost half of net global warming comes from methane emissions—but only 2% of all climate financing goes towards its reduction.
  • By 2030, 45% of anthropogenic methane emissions can be reduced with available, targeted solutions combined with additional measures that are aligned with development goals.

The Benefits of Reducing Methane Emissions

Methane is highly potent, capturing 84 times more heat than CO₂ in its first 20 years in the atmosphere.

In spite of these dangers, methane abatement receives a fraction of all climate financing. Based on an analysis from the Climate Policy Initiative, $110 billion in funding is needed annually, or about tenfold the amount spent today.

This infographic sponsored by Carbon Streaming Corporation looks at the benefits of mitigating methane emissions across key sectors.

The Benefits of Reducing Methane Emissions

The risk of methane emissions is substantial: it has contributed to nearly half of net global warming.

The good news is that future emissions can be cut significantly. Methane solutions that are currently available, combined with additional measures that target priority development goals, can cut 45% of human-caused methane emissions by 2030, equivalent to about 180 million tonnes per year (Mt/yr).

This translates into 0.28°C in avoided warming between 2040 and 2070 along with 255,000 premature deaths being avoided due to rising ozone concentrations.

SectorAvoided Warming
2040 - 2070
Avoided Premature Deaths
due to Ozone Per Year
Avoided Crop Losses
Agriculture0.04°C40,0004 Mt/yr
(Read more...)

Visualizing 40 Years of U.S. Interest Rates


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


The following content is sponsored by Citizens.

Visualizing 40 Years of U.S. Interest Rates

In just six months, the Federal Reserve has hiked interest rates by 300 basis points in one of the fastest rate increases in decades. By the end of 2023, rates could rise to 4.50-4.75%.

Yet in spite of these increases, rates still fall below historical averages.

In Part 1 of our Seizing Capital Opportunities series from Citizens, we show interest rate trends over modern history, and the implications of increasingly hawkish monetary policy in today’s environment.

U.S. Interest Rates: Reversing the Trend

For decades, U.S. interest rates have fallen due to structural factors including slower GDP and employment growth.

But with COVID-19, trillions in fiscal stimulus, and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, demand dynamics have dramatically shifted. U.S. inflation hit 40-year highs, met with a strong labor market. As a result, the Federal Reserve has made aggressive moves to raise rates to prevent the economy from overheating.

Below, we show average annual 10-year Treasury yields, a proxy for U.S. interest rates, and their annual percentage change since 1980. Data is as of October 5, 2022.

YearAverage U.S.
Interest Rate
Annual Percentage
Change
2022*2.7%156%
20211.5%63%
20200.9%-52%
20192.1%-29%
20182.9%12%
20172.3%-2%
20161.8%8%
20152.1%5%
20142.5%-29%
20132.4% (Read more...)

What is the Cost of Europe’s Energy Crisis?


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


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What is the Cost of Europe’s Energy Crisis?

What is the Cost of Europe’s Energy Crisis?

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

Europe is scrambling to cut its reliance on Russian fossil fuels.

As European gas prices soar eight times their 10-year average, countries are introducing policies to curb the impact of rising prices on households and businesses. These include everything from the cost of living subsidies to wholesale price regulation. Overall, funding for such initiatives has reached $276 billion as of August.

With the continent thrown into uncertainty, the above chart shows allocated funding by country in response to the energy crisis.

The Energy Crisis, In Numbers

Using data from Bruegel, the below table reflects spending on national policies, regulation, and subsidies in response to the energy crisis for select European countries between September 2021 and July 2022. All figures in U.S. dollars.

CountryAllocated FundingPercentage of GDPHousehold Energy Spending,
Average Percentage
🇩🇪 Germany$60.2B1.7%9.9%
🇮🇹 Italy$49.5B2.8%10.3%
🇫🇷 France$44.7B1.8%8.5%
🇬🇧 U.K.$37.9B1.4%11.3%
🇪🇸 Spain$27.3B2.3%8.9%
🇦🇹 Austria$9.1B2.3%8.9%
🇵🇱 Poland$7.6B1.3%12.9%
🇬🇷 Greece$6.8B3.7%9.9%
🇳🇱 Netherlands$6.2B0.7%8.6%
🇨🇿 Czech Republic$5.9B2.5%16.1%
🇧🇪 Belgium$4.1B0.8%8.2%
🇷🇴 Romania$3.8B1.6%12.5%
🇱🇹 Lithuania$2.0B3.6%10.0%
🇸🇪 Sweden$1.9B0.4%9.2%
🇫🇮 Finland$1.2B0.5%6.1%
🇸🇰 Slovakia$1.0B1.0%14.0%
🇮🇪 Ireland$1.0B0.2%9.2%
🇧🇬 (Read more...)

Animation: Visualizing U.S. Interest Rates Since 2020


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


Visualizing Interest Rates Since 2020

In March 2020, the U.S. Federal Reserve cut already depressed interest rates to historic lows amid an unraveling COVID-19 pandemic.

Fast-forward to 2022, and the central bank is grappling with a very different economic situation⁠ that includes high inflation, low unemployment, and increasing wage growth. Given these conditions, it raised interest rates to 2.25% up from 0% in just five months.

The above visualization from Jan Varsava shows U.S. interest rates over the last two years along with its impact on Treasury yields, often considered a key indicator for the economy.

Timeline of Interest Rates

Below, we show how U.S. interest rates have changed over the course of the pandemic:

DateFederal Funds Rate (Range)Rate Change (bps)
July 27, 20222.25% to 2.50%+75
June 16, 20221.50% to 1.75%+75
May 5, 20220.75% to 1.00%+50
March 17, 20220.25% to 0.50%+25
March 16, 20200.00% to 0.25%-100
March 3, 20201.00% to 1.25%-150

In early 2020, the Federal Reserve cut interest rates from 1% to 0% in emergency meetings. The U.S. economy then jumped back from its shortest recession ever recorded, partially supported by massive policy stimulus.

But by 2022, as the inflation rate hit 40-year highs, the central bank had to make its first rate increase in over two years. During the following Federal Reserve meetings, interest rates were then hiked 50 basis points, and then 75 basis points two times shortly after.

Despite (Read more...)

The Inflation Factor: How Rising Food and Energy Prices Impact the Economy


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


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The Inflation Factor: How Rising Food and Energy Prices Impact the Economy

How Rising Food and Energy Prices Impact the Economy

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

Since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the effects of energy supply disruptions are cascading across everything from food prices to electricity to consumer sentiment.

In response to soaring prices, many OECD countries are tapping into their strategic petroleum reserves. In fact, since March, the U.S. has sold a record one million barrels of oil per day from these reserves. This, among other factors, has led gasoline prices to fall more recently—yet deficits could follow into 2023, causing prices to increase.

With data from the World Bank, the above infographic charts energy shocks over the last half century and what this means for the global economy looking ahead.

Energy Price Shocks Since 1979

How does today’s energy price shock compare to previous spikes in real terms?

U.S.$/bbl EquivalentCrude OilNatural GasCoal
2022*$93$170$61
2008$127$100$46
1979$119$72$33

*2022 forecast

As the above table shows, the annual price of crude oil is forecasted to average $93 per barrel equivalent in 2022⁠. By comparison, during the 2008 and 1979 price shocks, crude oil averaged $127 and $119 per barrel, respectively.

What distinguishes the 2022 energy spike is that prices have soared across all fuels. Where price shocks were (Read more...)

Creating Sustainable Supply Chains in Luxury Fashion


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


The following content is sponsored by Gucci Equilibrium.

Creating Sustainable Supply Chains in Luxury Fashion

From regenerative farming to bio-based materials, leaders in luxury fashion are taking bold action to create more sustainable supply chains. As a result, companies have made strides in reducing their environmental impacts—with innovative visions for the future. 

This infographic from Gucci Equilibrium breaks down how the luxury fashion industry is integrating sustainable practices into supply chains, opening the door to new opportunities and innovation. 

The State of Sustainable Supply Chains

More than ever, luxury fashion companies are putting their money where their mouth is. In fact, references to “sustainability” in annual reports from 15 of the largest fashion companies are now on par with financial terms.

Number of Times Mentioned in Annual Reports
20152016201720182019
"Profit", "Growth"2,1672,3292,3662,7112,539
"Sustainable", "Sustainability"1,2091,5531,5291,8462,467

Not only are companies talking about sustainability, they are taking action to reduce their impacts across their carbon emissions, biodiversity, water use, waste production, chemical use, and pollution.

Diving deeper, the luxury fashion industry is finding new ways to reduce their impacts while increasing sustainability across their supply chains:

  • Sustainable sources that give back to nature: Partner with suppliers using regenerative farming practices.
  • Materials: Use organic, regenerative and recycled materials.
  • Design: Embed circularity principles and innovate.
  • Production: (Read more...)

Mapped: The Top U.S. Exports by State


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


Map of the most common export in each U.S. state

Click to view a larger version of the graphic.

Mapped: The Top U.S. Exports by State

The U.S. exported over $1.3 trillion in goods in 2020, the second-highest amount worldwide.

While refined petroleum was the top export overall at $58.4 billion, aircraft exports were actually the highest across 14 states—more than any other form of export.

This infographic from OnDeck shows America’s top exports by state, using January 2022 data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

America’s Top Exports, by Category

As shown below, Florida, Kansas, and numerous other states all have aircraft (and related parts) as their top export.

Here is the top export category for each state, using 2020 figures.

StateTop Export
ArizonaAircraft
ArkansasAircraft
ConnecticutAircraft
FloridaAircraft
GeorgiaAircraft
KansasAircraft
KentuckyAircraft
MarylandAircraft
New HampshireAircraft
OhioAircraft
OklahomaAircraft
South CarolinaAircraft
WashingtonAircraft
WisconsinAircraft
South DakotaBrewing Dregs
MontanaCoal
VirginiaCoal
West VirginiaCoal
IowaCorn
ColoradoCow Meat
NebraskaCow Meat
New MexicoData Processing Parts
New YorkDiamonds
WyomingDisodium Carbonate
OregonElectrical Processors
VermontElectronic Circuits
HawaiiFerrous Scrap
MassachusettsGold
NevadaGold
UtahGold
MinnesotaLight Oils
North DakotaLight Oils
MaineLobster
DelawareMedicine
IllinoisMedicine
IndianaMedicine
PennsylvaniaMedicine
New JerseyPalladium
MississippiPetroleum
TexasPetroleum
Rhode IslandPrecious Metal
IdahoSemiconductors
LouisianaSoybeans
TennesseeSurgical Instruments
North CarolinaVaccines and Antibodies
AlabamaVehicles
CaliforniaVehicles
MichiganVehicles
MissouriVehicles
AlaskaZinc

While the vast majority of the aerospace and defense industry consists (Read more...)

Comparing the Sizes of Dinosaurs in the Lost World


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


This graphic shows the sizes of the largest and smallest dinosaurs.

Click to view a larger version of the graphic.

Comparing the Sizes of Dinosaurs in the Lost World

When dinosaurs inhabited the Earth over 66 million years ago, their sizes and species varied dramatically.

While geological evidence is far from complete, fossil evidence suggests that the largest dinosaurs were comparable to the length of a Boeing 737 or the weight of 12 elephants. Meanwhile, the smallest were similar to the size of a chicken or bird.

In this infographic from Giulia De Amicis we compare the sizes of dinosaurs to get a sense of their vast scale and diversity.

Sizes of Dinosaurs Compared to Modern Day Life

Towering as high as 39 meters, the Argentinosaurus or ‘Argentina lizard’ is currently thought to be the largest dinosaur ever discovered. It was a sauropod, a subgroup of dinosaurs with very long necks and long tails, four wide legs for support, and relatively smaller heads.

In 1987, its bones were unearthed in the Patagonia region of Argentina, a destination well-known for prehistoric fossils. For comparison’s sake, the length of the Argentinosaurus is as high as a 13-story building.

NameLength (Meters)Length (Feet)
Argentinosaurus39 m128 ft
Blue Whale30 m98 ft
Brachiosaurus26 m85 ft
Diplodocus26 m85 ft
Barosaurus24 m79 ft
Spinosaurus15 m49 ft
Tyrannosaurus rex12 m30 ft
Iguanodon10 m33 ft
Baryonyx10 m33 ft
Triceratops9 m30 ft
African Elephant7 m23 ft
Human1.8 (Read more...)

Visualizing Global Income Distribution Over 200 Years


This post is by Dorothy Neufeld from Visual Capitalist


Global Income Distribution infographic

Visualizing Global Income Distribution Over 200 Years

Has the world become more unequal?

With COVID-19 disrupting societies and lower-income countries in particular, social and economic progress made over the last decade is in danger of being reversed. And with rising living costs and inflation across much of the world, experts warn that global income inequality has been exacerbated.

But the good news is that absolute incomes across many poorer countries have significantly risen over the last century of time. And though work remains, poverty levels have fallen dramatically in spite of stark inequality.

To analyze historical trends in global income distribution, this infographic from Our World in Data looks at three periods over the last two centuries. It uses economic data from 1800, 1975, and 2015 compiled by Hans and Ola Rosling.

Methodology

For global income estimates, data was gathered by country across three key variables:

  • Population
  • GDP per capita
  • Gini coefficient, which measures income inequality by statistical distribution

Daily incomes were measured in a hypothetical “international-$” currency, equal to what a U.S. dollar would buy in America in 2011, to allow for comparable incomes across time periods and countries.

Historical Patterns in Global Income Distribution

In 1800, over 80% of the world lived in what we consider extreme poverty today.

At the time, only a small number of countries—predominantly Western European countries, Australia, Canada and the U.S.—saw meaningful economic growth. In fact, research suggests that between 1 CE and 1800 CE the majority of places around the world (Read more...)